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The Newark Experience: The Ironbound

The Ironbound District


Environmental Issues

When Nature is Rats and Roaches: Religious Eco-Justice Activism in Newark, NJ
Matthew B. Immergut and Laurel Kearns. Journal for the Study of Religion Nature and Culture 6, 2012, 176-195.
"We specifically examine a range of strategies and campaigns by religious actors, and their non-religious partners, to fight the overwhelming toxicity and neglect of one neighborhood in the city—the Ironbound. We also consider some of the reasons in this particular context for a lack of engagement by religious groups and the difficulties faced by immigrant populations in addressing environmental problems."
“A Phenomenological Understanding of Residents’ Emotional Distress of Living in an Environmental Justice Community.”
Gabriela Dory, et al. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being 12(1), January 2017, pp. 1-10.
"This study applies a descriptive phenomenological method to explore and describe the emotional experience of residents living in Ironbound, a known EJ community located in Newark, New Jersey." Rutgers-restricted Access
Ironbound Voices
Newsletter of the Ironbound Community Corporation of Newark. 1978-2001.
Ironbound Environmental Justice History and Resource Center
A project of the Ironbound Community Corporation of Newark, the IEJHRC is housed at the Van Buren Branch of the Newark Public Library (140 Van Buren Street) and is open to the public.
Garbage Governmentalities and Environmental Justice in New Jersey
Raysa Martinez Kruger. (Ph.D. Thesis) Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 2017. "Using the Ironbound neighborhood of Newark and Essex County as a case study area, this dissertation examines how conditions of environmental injustice in the Ironbound are produced and perpetuated by the collective enactment of our governmental approaches to the problem of increasing garbage production in New Jersey since the 1870s. The garbage flow control policy New Jersey implemented in the 1970s is a focus point in this analysis, but this dissertation contextualizes the incinerator location strategy within the history and geography of garbage governmental management in the state."
Remedies for Environmental Injustice: Addressing the Localized Concentration of Air Pollution and Asthma among Newark's Poor
Zachary Aboff. 10, October 2022.
"This analysis investigates the available legal remedies for residents of Newark’s Ironbound and similarly positioned communities that could be used to halt or possibly reverse the concentrating of pollution sources in their neighborhoods."


Stirring the Melting Pot: Food and the Performance of Inclusion in Newark's Ironbound Neighborhood Rutgers-restricted access
Lori Danielle Barcliff Baptista. Thesis (Ph.D.), Northwestern University, 2009. Available?
"Peixe, Patria e Possibilidades Portuguesas: "Fish, Homeland, and Portuguese Possibilities,"
Lori Danielle Barcliff Baptista. Text and Performance Quarterly 29(1), 2009, pp.60-76.
"This essay explores the relationship between food and identity performances within a segment of a Portuguese transnational community with social, economic, and political ties to both the Ironbound neighborhood of Newark, New Jersey, and many of the rural villages of Portugal. I examine how some Portuguese-Americans in Newark's Ironbound use bacalhau (salt cod) to perform their identities." Rutgers-restricted Access
Ironbound Foodscapes: Five Buildings, Five Stories, One Neighborhood
Traces the cultural history of the Ironbound through its eating establishments. From The Newest Americans

The Ironbound

The Ironbound: An Illustrated History of Newark's Down Neck
Edward A. Jardim. Frenchtown, New Jersey, Stone Creek Publications, 2016.
Heavily illustrated. Available?
The Changing Geography of Italian Immigrants in the United States: A Case Study of the Ironbound Colony, Newark, New Jersey.
William J.E. Bolen. Thesis (Ph.D), Rutgers University, 1986.
The impact of Italian immigrants on transforming the cultural landscape, and a detalied analysis of the Italian Ironbound colony in Newark at the turn of the 20th century. Available?
Design to Connect: Complete Connectivity in the Ironbound
Mark D. Hoopes. (M.L.A. Thesis)Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 2018.
"Communities that connect with one another and their landscape become functional and strong, enabling them to act together to achieve common goals. This paper explores how landscape design can reinforce this type of connectivity in the Ironbound neighborhood of Newark, NJ."
Redevelopment Plan for the Ironbound Area: Area Under Investigation: City Tax Block 2040, Lots 1 and 2
Newark, N.J., Mayor's Policy and Development Office, 1978. Available?
Ironbound: Newark, New Jersey, An Urban Portrait
Donald P. Lokuta. 1980.
Photographs. Available?
A New Consciousness: Challenging, Choosing, Changing: The Story of the Ironbound Community Learning Center, Newark, New Jersey
Jeanne Dolan and Tim Parsons. Trenton, N.J., Department of Education, 1974.
A community learning center established in Newark, New Jersey, in 1969.
A History of the Ironbound Children's Center
Paul Schrodt. Newark: Learning Development Center in Newark, Inc., 1973.
An Economic Audit of the Central Business and Ironbound Districts of Newark, New Jersey.
Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Regional Studies Section, 1973. Available?
History of Pennington Court, 1939-1960
Walter Chambers, 1982.
Located in the Ironbound, Pennington Court may have been the first public housing project in New Jersey.
"The Ironbound District" : A Study of a District in Newark, N. J.
Willard D. Price for the Neighborhood House, Newark, 1912.

Day Laborers

Ironbound Underground: Wage Theft & Workplace Violations Among Day Laborers in Newark's East Ward
Nicholas Norcia and Rafael Perez Jr. Newark, N.J., Seton Hall University School of Law. Immigrant Workers' Rights Clinic. July 2010.
Issues faced by day laborers that congregate daily in the Ironbound section of Newark to look for work.


Catholic Music in Lusophone New Jersey: Circum-Atlantic Music, Intergroup Dynamics, and Immigrant Struggles in Transnational Communities
Marc Meistrich Gidal. American Music 34(2), 2016, pp. 180-217.
" Music contributes not only to services but to distinguishing, combining, and uniting groups among the Lusophone Catholic parishes of Newark." Rutgers-restricted Access

Ironbound Neighborhood House

Newark Neighborhood House
One page report, circa 1903. The Neighborhood House was opened by the Newark Social Settlement Association in 1905. "The 'Ironbound District' has been chosen for the first settlement partly because of its cosmopolitan nature and partly because it is the heart of the great factory district."
Newark Settlement House, c.1903.

Oral Histories and Other Narratives

Ironbound History Day: March 17, 2016
Interviews conducted by East Side High School students.
Queering Political Economy in Neoliberal Ironbound Newark: Subjectivity and Spacemaking among Brazilian Queer Immigrant Men
Yamil Avivi. Dialogo 18(2), 2015, pp. 105-118.
"This ethnographic account employs textual and spatial-temporal analysis to generate an alternative narrative of gay/queer life and groupings in the Ironbound."
Betina Botox and Lobixomen "Tao Engranados!" Queer Brazilian Televisual Representations Shaping Spatial (Im)possibilities in Newark
Yamil Avivi Garcia. Bilingual Review 33(4), January 2017, pp. 45-59.
"This ethnographic essay examines the ways two “tão engraçados” [very humorous] televisual Brazilian queer representations—those of Betina Botox (a questionably-middle-class gay male from Sāo Paulo) and Lobixomen (a heterosexual man who turns into a wolf in drag under a full moon)—impacted queer Brazilian informants who lived in the Ironbound..." Rutgers-restricted Access
When the Heart Keeps on Beating: Hybridity and Otherness in paulA neves' Poetry
Reinaldo Silva. Interdisciplinary Journal of Portuguese Diaspora Studies 8, 2019, pp. 75-101
"This new voice from the Ironbound section of Newark, New Jersey heralds a promising first generation of Portuguese American writers whose parents first set foot there in the late 1960s and afterwards. While tapping from her own upbringing in this industrial setting, neves discusses her unique Portuguese American ethnic background from a gendered and lesbian points of view." Rutgers-restricted Access

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