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The Newark Experience

Ferry Street

Ferry Street in the "Ironbound" is the heart of Portuguese Newark.

Ferry Street Newark


Portuguese Emigration to the United States, 1820-1930
Maria Ioannis Benis Baganha. New York, Garland Pub., 1990. Available?
The Portuguese-American
Leo Pap. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1981. Available?
The Forgotten Portuguese
Manuel Mira. Franklin, NC, Portuguese-American Historical Research Foundation, Inc., c1998. Available?
Portuguese of the United States From 1880 to 1990: Distinctiveness in Work Patterns Across Gender, Nativity and PlaceRutgers-restricted access
Maria Gloria Mulcahy. Thesis (Ph.D.), Brown University, 2003.
Looks at questions relating to the divergence of the Portuguese from the usual patterns of work-related aspects of adjustment. Focuses on labor force participation, occupational characteristics, and self-employment. Looks at regional differences between the major Portuguese settlement areas, including the Newark/New York area. Available?
Luso-American Communities in Newark: Entrepreneurial Initiative and Self-Employment
Miguel Filipe Barbosa Machado. (Thesis). Universidade do Porto, 2021.
"The purpose of this dissertation is to contribute to the enrichment of the available body of literature on immigrant entrepreneurship and self-employment initiatives in Portuguese communities overseas, focusing on the specific case of Luso-American communities in Newark, New Jersey, in the United States. This is achieved by means of an exploratory case study based on a sample of eight semi-structured interviews the subjects of which were all either self-starting entrepreneurs or self-employed individuals born in Portugal and who emigrated to the U.S., mostly in the late 1960s and in the 1970s and 80s."
Autobiographical Writings by Portuguese Emigrants in Newark: Glocal Emancipation and Resisting Stereotypes
Elsa Lechner. Journal of Lusophone Studies1 (2), 2016, 50-71.
"This article examines the experience of Portuguese immigrants in Newark, NJ (USA) through the analysis of autobiographical writings."
"Language Maintenance and Ethnic Survival: The Portuguese in New Jersey,"
Thomas M. Stephens. Hispania 72 (3), September 1989, 716-20.
Looks at Portuguese language maintenance and ethnicity in and around Newark, and the role played by education, the Church, the media, and the social clubs. Rutgers-restricted Access
Semiotic Landscapes and Discourses of Place within a Portuguese-Speaking Neighborhood
Kellie Goncalves. Interdisciplinary Journal of Portuguese Diaspora Studies 1, 2012, 71-99.
"This study is about the semiotic landscapes and the commodification of place in the Ironbound neighborhood, located in Newark, New Jersey, USA...The aim of this study is to examine the code preferences of signs and the description of place as multilingual and multiethnic within a predominantly Luso-American community. "
Community, Culture and the Makings of Identity: Portuguese-Americans Along the Eastern Seaboard
Edited by Kimberly DaCosta Holton and Andrea Klimt. North Dartmouth, Mass., University of Massachusetts Center for Portuguese Studies and Culture, 2009.
Includes: Chapter 5. Kimberly DaCosta Holton. Dancing Along the In-Between: Folklore Performance and Transmigration in Portuguese Newark; Chapter 6. Lori Barcliff Baptista. Images of the Virgin in Portuguese Art at the Newark Museum; Chapter 17. Ana Yolanda Ramos-Zayas. Stereotypes of the Tropics in 'Portuguese Newark': Brazilian Women, Urban Erotics, and the Phantom of Blackness; Chapter 19. Kimberly DaCosta Holton. Angola Dreaming: Memories of Africa Among Portuguese Retornados in Newark, NJ. Available?
Pride Prejudice and Politics: Performing Folklore Amid Newark's Urban Renaissance,"
Kimberly DaCosta Holton. Etnografica 9(1), 2005, 81-101.
"Dancing Along the In-Between: Folklore Performance and Transmigration in Newark, New Jersey,"
Kimberly DaCosta Holton. IN Performing Folklore: Ranchos Folcloricos From Lisbon to Newark. Bloomington, Indiana, Indiana University Press, 2005. Chapter 6: pp.172-197. Available?
Stirring the Melting Pot: Food and the Performance of Inclusion in Newark's Ironbound NeighborhoodRutgers-restricted access
Lori Danielle Barcliff Baptista. Thesis (Ph.D.), Northwestern University, 2009. Available?
"Peixe, Patria e Possibilidades Portuguesas: "Fish, Homeland, and Portuguese Possibilities,"
Lori Danielle Barcliff Baptista. Text and Performance Quarterly 29(1), 2009, pp.60-76.
"This essay explores the relationship between food and identity performances within a segment of a Portuguese transnational community with social, economic, and political ties to both the Ironbound neighborhood of Newark, New Jersey, and many of the rural villages of Portugal. I examine how some Portuguese-Americans in Newark's Ironbound use bacalhau (salt cod) to perform their identities." Rutgers-restricted Access
"Ethnic Identity and Interethnic Dating in Portuguese Young Adults,"
Warren A. Reich, Jennifer M. Ramos, and Rashmi Jaipal. Asian Journal of Social Psychology 3(2), August 2000, 153-161.
"Forty undergraduate Rutgers-Newark students (21 women and 19 men) of Portuguese descent, aged 18 to 28, participated in a study on identity commitment and attitudes toward interethnic dating. High commitment to a Portuguese identity was associated with a collectivist orientation and with having a social network densely populated with Portuguese people." Rutgers-restricted Access
When the Heart Keeps on Beating: Hybridity and Otherness in paulA neves' Poetry
Reinaldo Silva. Interdisciplinary Journal of Portuguese Diaspora Studies 8, 2019, pp. 75-101
" This new voice from the Ironbound section of Newark, New Jersey heralds a promising first generation of Portuguese American writers whose parents first set foot there in the late 1960s and afterwards. While tapping from her own upbringing in this industrial setting, neves discusses her unique Portuguese American ethnic background from a gendered and lesbian points of view." Rutgers-restricted Access
Celebrating the Portuguese Communities in America: A Cartographic Perspective
Online exhibit from the Library of Congress. Includes a section on Twentieth-Century Arrivals in Newark.

The Ironbound

The Ironbound: The Past, Present and Future of Newark's Portuguese Community
Corey Takahashi. WNYC News. June 7, 2007.

Ironbound: Environmental Perspectives of an Immigrant Staging Area.
Thomas Stasny. Rutgers-Newark Senior Thesis.2004. Available?


Luso Americano
Bilingual newsweekly. Available?
Tri-lingual Ironbound Voices
The Newark News clippings file has about articles on the Portuguese in Newark going back to 1941.
The Newark Public Library has microfilmed the Newark News files; Dana Library has microfilm for a portion of the collection. The articles on Newark Portuguese are on Reel N-45, in the Dana Newark Collection.


Portuguese Immigrants in the United States
A bibliography from the Library of Congress.

The Portuguese in the United States: A Bibliography.
Leo Pap. Staten Island, New York. Center for Migration Studies. 1976. Available?


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