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The Newark Experience: Newark Schools: The 1990s to the Present

Charter Schools

Charter Schools and Urban Education Improvement: A Comparison of Newark's District and Charter Schools
Jason Barr, Alan Sadovnik, and Louisa Visconti. October 2005.
A Comparison of District and Charter Schools for 4th and 8th Grades in Newark, New Jersey.
Jason Barr, Alan Sadovnik, and Louisa Visconti. Rutgers University Newark Working Paper #2006-002. May 2006
Charter High Schools: Closing the Achievement Gap: Innovations in Education.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Dept. of Education, 2006.
Profiles eight charter schools, including the North Star Academy School of Newark, that are meeting achievement goals under No Child Left Behind (NCLB). 95% of North Star's 2005 graduates were accepted to 4-year universities.
Charter Schools and Urban Education Improvement: Newark and New Jersey's Charter Schools
Louisa Visconti et al. National Conference on Charter Schools: Trends and Policy Issues. Sacramento, CA, March 27-28, 2004.
A Statistical Analysis of the Newark Public Schools
Jason M. Barr. November 2004.
Using 2002-2003 New Jersey Report Card data, analyses the performance and characteristics of fourth and eighth grade students in Newark public schools. Looks at determinants of student performance and differences in student composition and performance between charter and other public schools.
"Home is Where the Heart Is: Can Cory Booker Save Newark's Schools?,"
David Skinner. Education Next 2006(4), Fall 2006, 23-29
Using Classroom Management to Improve Preschoolers' Social and Emotional Skills: Final Impact and Implementation Findings from the Foundations of Learning Demonstration in Newark and Chicago.
Pamela Morris et al. New York, MRDC, January 2013.
Newark Public Schools: Budget Impacts of Underfunding and Rapid Charter Growth
Danielle Farrie and Monete Johnson. Newark, Rutgers University Education Law Center, 2017.
In this report the authors analyze the impact of the NPS budget crisis on per pupil spending in district schools. They find that the combined stress of chronic underfunding and rapid charter expansion has significantly lowered spending and reduced staff and programs in district schools.
Showing Up Matters: Newark Chronic Absenteeism in the Early Years
Advocates for Children of New Jersey. January 2016.
4,328 Newark students in grades kindergarten through 3rd grade were chronically absent during the 2013–14 school year.
Post-Secondary Outcomes of Newark High School Graduates (2011-2016): College Enrollment, Persistence, & Completion
Jeffrey R. Backstrand and Kristi Donaldson. Newark City of Learning Collaborative and Rutgers University Newark School of Public Affairs and Administration, 2018.
A longitudinal study of the college-going patterns of almost 13,500 Newark high school students from the district, charter, vocational technical, and parochial sectors.
The Effect of Attending a Charter School in Newark, New Jersey on Student Mobility
Colin Shanks and Marcus A. Winters. IN Essays on Charter Student Mobility and Machine Learning Applications in Empirical Microeconomics. (Ph.D. Thesis). Boston University, 2021. Chapter 3, pp. 71-97; 117-133.
"Consistent with the prior literature, we find that charter school enrollment leads to significantly less mobility in terms of school changes within Newark Public School district and reentry into a later year’s lottery. However...we find that the lesser mobility within the charter sector appears to have a nuanced relationship with students’ preferences." Rutgers-restricted Access

The 1990s to the Present

"Teacher Development and Reform in an Inner City School,"
Jean Anyon. Teachers College Record 96(1), 1994, 14-31. Rutgers-restricted Access.
"Inner City School Reform: Toward Useful Theory"
Jean Anyon. Urban Education 30(1), April 1995, 56-70. Rutgers-restricted Access
"Race, Social Class, and Educational Reform in an Inner-City School"
Jean Anyon. Teachers College Record 97(1), Fall 1995, 69-94. Rutgers-restricted Access.
Ghetto Schooling: A Political Economy of Urban Educational Reform
Jean Anyon. New York, Teachers College Press, 1997.
Looks at an effort at educational reform in Newark in the early 90s and traces how past economic and political decisions have shaped Newark city schools. An important work on urban educational policy. Available? 
Black Mayors and School Politics: The Failure of Reform in Detroit, Gary, and Newark.
Wilbur C. Rich. New York, Garland, 1996.
Analyzes the roles played by black mayors and black politicians in relation to school policies and attempted reforms in Detroit, Gary, and Newark. Finds that neither black nor white political power is sufficient to overcome the power of the "public school cartel" (administrators, school board members, professional educators, and teacher union leaders) which controls school policy-making in large city school districts. Available?
Other People's Schools: The Challenge of Building New Schools in New Jersey's Urban Districts: 2000-2010
Robert S. Daniel. (Ph.D Thesis) Rutgers University Newark, 2013.
"This dissertation captures the 10-year contemporary history of implementing the facilities element of New Jersey’s historic Abbott V decision. New Jersey’s Legislature and Governor took this Supreme Court decision and created legislation responding to multiple constituencies and lobbyists while shaping a school construction program to be deposited within a government agency for implementation. While not the largest in nominal dollar value, New Jersey’s program was possibly the widest in geographic scope and most detailed in ambition in the United States." Available?
Racial Segregation in New Jersey's Public Schools: Progressive Public Policy at a Crossroads Rutgers-restricted access
Nancy Ann Spiller. D.Litt. Thesis. Drew University, 2001.
"Explores the disjuncture between the segregated condition of the public school system and progressive public policy developed to correct that problem." Includes case studies of Newark, Englewood, Camden, and Montclair schools. Available?
New Jersey's Apartheid and Intensely Segregated Urban Schools: Powerful Evidence of an Inefficient and Unconstitutional State Education System
Paul Tractenberg, Gary Orfield and Greg Flaxman. Rutgers University-Newark. Institute on Education Law and Policy. October 2013.
A Report Jointly Prepared with the Civil Rights Project, UCLA. Looks at levels of school segregation in New Jersey's poor urban schools, including Newark.
Putting the Children First: The Changing Face of Newark's Public Schools.
Edited by Jonathan G.Silin and Carol Lippman. New York, Teachers College Press, 2003.
Focuses on "Project New Beginnings," a collaborative project begun in 1996 between the Newark Public Schools and the Bank Street College of Education (NYC) aimed at restructuring early childhood education. Available?
"Changing a Failing Promotional Standard: A Close Look at the Newark Public Schools District's Hidden Social Promotion Policy"
Molly Moynihan. Seton Hall Legislative Journal 33(2) June 2009, pp. 609-649.
"This Note examines whether the strategy of "promotion with intervention" within the Newark Public Schools District violates the Education Clause of the New Jersey Constitution, a state constitutional mandate to provide all children with a "thorough and efficient" education." Rutgers-restricted Access
At the Front of the Bus: A Community Based Perspective of the Community, Issues, and Organizing Efforts to Improve Public Schooling in Newark, New Jersey Rutgers-restricted access
Michelle Lauren Wells. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, 2009.
"This study examined community organizing for educational equity—also called education organizing—in the northeastern city of Newark, New Jersey. It focused on understanding, from the perspective of those involved, both the goals that community members, community organizers, and education advocates sought to achieve and the processes and practices that they used to represent community interests and establish community leadership. " Available?
Measuring the Effectiveness of an Alternative Education Collaborative in Improving Student Outcomes in Newark, New Jersey
Soribel Genao. Thesis (Ph.D), Rutgers University, 2010.
"Compares the relative efficacy of alternative education placements in two Newark-based initiatives and evaluates the collaborative process among stakeholders in these initiatives." Available?
The Politics of School Reform: A Broader and Bolder Approach for Newark
Pedro A. Noguera and Lauren Wells. Berkeley Review of Education 2(1), 2011.
As a contrast to the decontextualized approach to school improvement that has characterized national reforms, a new strategy to school improvement that is underway in Newark, New Jersey is presented as an alternative model...based on the premise that educational reforms must be designed to counter and mitigate the effects of social and economic conditions in the local environment.
Jersey-Style Neoliberalism: Governor Christopher Christie, Crony Capitalism, and the Politics of K-12 Education
Jason P. Murphy; Atiya S. Strothers; and Catherine A. Lugg. Peabody Journal of Education 92(1), January 2017, pp. 115-126.
"We focus on one urban center, Newark, as an illustrative case study of how New Jersey's brand of neoliberal politics has shaped the political agency of those who live in the communities NJ's public schools serve. " Rutgers-restricted Access
What Enables Communities to Resist Neoliberal Education Reforms? Lessons from Newark and Camden, New Jersey
Stephen Danley and Julia Sass Rubin. Journal of Urban Affairs 42(4), May 2020, 663-684
"Our analysis of these 2 cities provides additional evidence for the hypothesis that access to social and economic capital and to information makes sustained resistance possible. We also identify a third variable, extreme political control as manifested through political machines, that intersects with the other variables to limit the sustainability of resistance movements in the presence of undemocratic governance mechanisms." Rutgers-restricted Access
"Measuring the Effectiveness of an Alternative Education Collaboration: Newark, New Jersey"
Soribel Genao. International Journal of Educational Management 28(4), 2014, pp. 432-450.
" Utilizing a quantitative approach, this research compares the efficacy of a newly developed collaborative alternative education program to existing programs in New Jersey's Newark Public Schools during 2008-2009." Rutgers-restricted Access
Resident Perceptions of Public Education in Newark: A Community Survey
Alan Sadovnik et al. New York University Metropolitan Center for Urban Education and Rutgers University-Newark Newark Schools Research Collaborative. 2011.
The Prize: Who's in Charge of America's Schools?
Dale Russakoff. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2015.
Mark Zuckerberg gave $100 million to "fix" Newark schools. Why it didn't work. Available?
School District Reform in Newark: Within- and Between-School Changes in Achievement Growth
Mark J. Chin et al. NBER Working Paper No. 23922. October 2017.
"In 2011-12, Newark launched a set of educational reforms supported by a gift from Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan. Using data from 2009 through 2016, we evaluate the change in Newark students’ achievement growth relative to similar students and schools elsewhere in New Jersey."
School District Reform in Newark: Within- and Between-School Changes in Achievement Growth
Mark J. Chin et al. ILR Review 72(2), March 2019, pp. 323-354. Rutgers-restricted Access
Science Instruction in Newark Public Schools
Thomas B. Corcoran and Gail B. Gerry. New York, Columbia University Teachers College, Consortium for Policy Research in Education, CPRE Research Report # RR‐71, September 2011.
"The Oil Game: Generating Enthusiasm for Geosciences in Urban Youth in Newark, N.J."
Alexander E. Gates & Michael J. Kalczynski. Journal of Geoscience Education 64(1), February 2016, 17-23.
"A hands-on game based upon principles of oil accumulation and drilling was highly effective at generating enthusiasm toward the geosciences in urban youth from underrepresented minority groups in Newark, NJ. " Rutgers-restricted Access
The Factors Influencing Teachers' Decision to Integrate Current Technology Educational Tools in Urban Elementary Public Schools Rutgers-restricted access
Claudio Barbaran. Ed.D. Thesis, Saint Peter's University, 2014.
"The purpose of this study was to determine the strength of the relationships, if any, between teachers' demographics, use of current technological tools, attitudes, professional development, and rate and stage of technology adoption/integration...Five elementary urban public schools and 133 teachers in Newark, New Jersey, participated in the study. Their responses were used to determine the relationships between various factors and the rate and stage of technology adoption/integration."
New Jersey's Special Review Assessment (SRA): An Examination of the Post Secondary Outcomes of Newark High School Graduates 2003-2008
Andre Keeton, Alan R. Sadovnik, and Jeffrey Backstrand. Rutgers University, Newark, Institute on Education Law and Policy and the Newark Schools Research Collaborative. May 25, 2011.
"This report describes the post-secondary experiences of NPS high school students who graduated via either the New Jersey High School Proficiency Assessment (HSPA) or the Special Review Assessment (SRA) route. The analyses presented in this report employ data from six cohorts of NPS high school graduates (2003 through 2008)."

State Control

Joint Statement from Governor Chris Christie and Newark Mayor Ras Baraka Regarding Newark Public Schools
Announcement of the plan to return Newark schools to local control.
22 Years of State Control Over Newark Schools: A Timeline
New Jersey State Department of Education Monitoring, Intervention, and Takeover Practices in the Newark, Trenton, and Jersey City Public School Districts
Randy Pratt. Ed.D. Thesis, Seton Hall University, 1992. Available?
Committee Meeting of Joint Committee on the Public Schools: Commissioner of Education, Dr. Leo Klagholz and Newark State District Superintendent, Dr. Beverly Hall will Present the District's Strategic Plan.
New Jersey. Legislature. Joint Committee on the Public Schools. Trenton, N.J., December 16, 1996. Available?
Committee Meeting of Joint Committee on the Public Schools: Testimony on the State Operation of the Newark Public Schools.
New Jersey. Legislature. Joint Committee on the Public Schools.
February 5, 1997: Available?
March 5, 1997: Available?
Committee Meeting of Joint Committee on the Public Schools: Testimony from Commissioner William L. Librera on the Status of the Three State-Run Districts.
New Jersey. Legislature. Joint Committee on the Public Schools. April 17, 2003. Available?
Myths and Realities: The Impact of the State Takeover on Students and Schools in Newark.
William M. Eglinton. Boston Mass., Community Training and Assistance Center, c.2000.
Data and perceptions on school and district operations, community engagement, and student performance five years after the State takeover of Newark city schools.
"Regime Theory, State Government, and a Takeover of Urban Education,"
Peter Burns. Journal of Urban Affairs 25(3), July 2003, 285-303.
Examines the state takeover of Newark schools. "The Newark case illustrates how politics and structural conditions motivated state government to change the nature of the education regime and directly shape education policy at the local level." Rutgers-restricted Access
Takeover: Race, Education, and American Democracy.
Domingo Morel. New York, Oxford University Press, 2018.
"Offers the first systematic study of state takeovers of local governments by focusing on takeovers of local school districts...The book is built around an original study of nearly 1000 school districts, including every school district that has been taken over by their respective state, and a powerful case study of Newark, New Jersey" Available?
"The Effects of Centralized Government Authority on Black and Latino Political Empowerment"
Domingo Morel. Political Research Quarterly 69(2), June 2016, pp. 347-360.
"To assess the effects of centralized government on political empowerment among racial minorities, this article examines how state takeovers of local school districts have affected black and Latino descriptive representation on local school boards. Using an original dataset of state takeovers of local school districts from 1989 to 2013, as well as case study analysis of Newark, New Jersey, this article shows that centralization affects communities differently according to the level of political empowerment they have at the time of centralization." Rutgers-restricted Access

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