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The Newark Experience

1960s through the 1980s

Teachers' Perceptions of Lower-Class Central City Negro Children and of Middle-Class Suburban White Children: A Scale Analysis.
Elizabeth Hughes Clark. Thesis (M.A.), Rutgers University, 1965. Available?
The Newark Community School
Eric Mann. Boston, New England Free Press, 1967.
Reprinted from the August 1967 Liberation. Available?
Barringer High School: A Window Into Newark During the 1960s and Early 1970s
Denell Marsh. M.A. Thesis, Rutgers University-Newark, 2008. Available?
Participation of the Black Community in Selected Aspects of the Educational Institution of Newark, 1958-1972
William M. Phillips Jr. New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers, the State University, 1973.
Final report of a two-year study on the interdependency of race and education in Newark between 1958 and 1972. Focuses on the changing relationship between the Newark Board of Education and the black community. Available
Educational Policy, Community Participation, and Race
William M. Phillips Jr. Journal of Negro Education 44(3), Summer 1975, 257-267.
Summary of the findings and implications of the above study. Rutgers-restricted Access
African Free School Evaluation, Regular School Year, and Summer. ESEA Title 1, 1970-1971.
Communication Technology Corp., Haddonfield, N.J., 1971.
"The African Free School has been in operation as an experimental class, supported by Title I funds since September 1970. The major goals of the program are: (1) to improve the academic and emotional achievement of the students, and (2) to teach racial dignity and pride without teaching racism. The AFS Program consists of the regular AFS experimental class and a control group which was established for purposes of comparative evaluation...The control group used the regular Newark City School District curriculum, while the experimental AFS group was taught according to the curriculum and methodology of the African Free School which was designed to satisfy the normal requirements for standard subject matter while introducing culturally related materials and curriculum."
We Are An African People: Independent Education, Black Power, and the Radical Imagination
Russell John Rickford. New York, Oxford University Press, 2016.
Examines the history of the Pan African nationalist private schools, including Baraka's Africa Free School, that appeared in the 1960s and 1970s. "Organizers of the schools saw formal education as a means of creating a vanguard of young activists devoted to the struggle for black political sovereignty throughout the world." Available?
Whatever Happened to the Chad School: An Institution of Educational Excellence?
Kinaya C. Sokoya interview with former Chad School administrator Babatu Y. Olubayo. The Chad School was an independent Black educational institution in Newark that was established and supported by the Black Youth Organization.

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