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The Newark Experience: Newark Schools: The 1960s through the 1980s

Who's in Charge?

Community Control and the Newark Teachers Strikes
From Rise Up Newark. Essays accompanied by a valuable digitized collection of documents and oral interviews.

Newark Teachers Strikes

Social Conflict: Teachers' Strikes in Newark, 1964-1971. An Issue Paper on a Topical Subject in Education.
William M. Phillips and Joseph M. Conforti. Trenton, N.J., State Department of Education, Division of Research, Planning and Education, 1972. Alexander Call Number: DOCNJ LB2844.57 .N5P45 1972
"Racial Conflict in Central Cities: The Newark Teachers' Strikes,"
Joseph M. Conforti. Society 12(1), 1974, 22-33. Dana Call Number: Periodical, Shelved by Title
"What Did Teachers Want?: Newark Teachers and Their Union,"
Steve Golin. Contemporary Education 69(4), Summer 1998, 233-37.
Presents the history of the New Teachers Union which became the bargaining agent for Newark teachers in 1969. Rutgers-restricted Access.
The Newark Teacher Strikes: Hopes on the Line.
Steve Golin. New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press, 2002. Available?
Class, Gender, and Race in the Newark Teacher Strikes Rutgers-restricted Access
Lois Weiner, New Politics 2, Winter 2003, p.101. Review of Golin's The Newark Teacher Strikes. Available?
Class, Gender, and Race in the Newark Teacher Strikes," IN Lois Weiner, The Future of Our Schools: Teachers Unions and Social Justice. Chicago, Haymarket Books, 2012. Available?
The Anatomy of a Strike: The Newark Teachers Union/February 1, 1970 to February 25, 1970. Frank A. Fiorito. Newark, Newark Teachers Union, 1970. The strike from the union's point of view. Heavily illustrated. Available?
The Newark School Wars: A Socio-historical Study of the 1970 and 1971 Newark School System Strikes. Norman Eiger. Ed.D. Thesis, Rutgers University, 1976. 2 vols. Available?
"The Newark Teachers' Strike," Fred Barbaro. Urban Review 5(3), 1972, 3-10. The 1971 teachers strike and the idea of community control of education. Available?

Newark Teachers Union v. Board of Education of Newark. Gale, U.S. Supreme Court Records, 2011. Available?

Leo Litzky Collection. Leo Liztky was the principal of several Newark schools. "Box 2, Folders 6-10, contains correspondence, press releases, newsletters, memos, flyers, notices, legal documents, and clippings concerning strike issues, legal proceedings against strikers, and imprisonment of activists in the Newark teachers strike." More from the Newark Archives Project.

Teacher Strike!: Public Education and the Making of a New American Political Order.
Jon Shelton. 2nd edition. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 2017. "Shelton puts close examinations of strikes in Newark, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and St. Louis in dialogue with the national trajectory of neoliberal conservatism in this period, demonstrating how the strikes and the discourses they provoked contributed to the growing public perception that unions were at best irrelevant and at worst detrimental to American prosperity." Available?

Larry Hamm Describes Student Activism During the 1971 Newark Teachers Strike
Newark community organizer describes the activism of Newark Public Schools students during the strike.

1960s through the 1980s

Teachers' Perceptions of Lower-Class Central City Negro Children and of Middle-Class Suburban White Children: A Scale Analysis.
Elizabeth Hughes Clark. Thesis (M.A.), Rutgers University, 1965. Available?
The Newark Community School.
Eric Mann. Boston, New England Free Press, 1967.
Reprinted from the August 1967 Liberation. Available?
Barringer High School: A Window Into Newark During the 1960s and Early 1970s.
Denell Marsh. M.A. Thesis, Rutgers University-Newark, 2008. Available?
Participation of the Black Community in Selected Aspects of the Educational Institution of Newark, 1958-1972.
William M. Phillips Jr. New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers, the State University, 1973.
Final report of a two-year study on the interdependency of race and education in Newark between 1958 and 1972. Focuses on the changing relationship between the Newark Board of Education and the black community. Available
Educational Policy, Community Participation, and Race
William M. Phillips Jr. Journal of Negro Education 44(3), Summer 1975, 257-267.
Summary of the findings and implications of the above study. Rutgers-restricted Access
African Free School Evaluation, Regular School Year, and Summer. ESEA Title 1, 1970-1971.
Communication Technology Corp., Haddonfield, N.J., 1971.
"The African Free School has been in operation as an experimental class, supported by Title I funds since September 1970. The major goals of the program are: (1) to improve the academic and emotional achievement of the students, and (2) to teach racial dignity and pride without teaching racism. The AFS Program consists of the regular AFS experimental class and a control group which was established for purposes of comparative evaluation...The control group used the regular Newark City School District curriculum, while the experimental AFS group was taught according to the curriculum and methodology of the African Free School which was designed to satisfy the normal requirements for standard subject matter while introducing culturally related materials and curriculum."
We Are An African People: Independent Education, Black Power, and the Radical Imagination
Russell John Rickford. New York, Oxford University Press, 2016.
Examines the history of the Pan African nationalist private schools, including Baraka's Africa Free School, that appeared in the 1960s and 1970s. "Organizers of the schools saw formal education as a means of creating a vanguard of young activists devoted to the struggle for black political sovereignty throughout the world." Available?
Whatever Happened to the Chad School: An Institution of Educational Excellence?
Kinaya C. Sokoya interview with former Chad School administrator Babatu Y. Olubayo. The Chad School was an independent Black educational institution in Newark that was established and supported by the Black Youth Organization.

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