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Arts Culture and Media: Everyday Data

Resources for finding data and developing information evaluation skills for the Everyday Data course.

Academic Integrity and Plagiarism

As an academically honest student at Rutgers University, you need to be familiar with the university's policy on Academic Integrity.

One of the most frequently misunderstood forms of academic dishonesty is plagiarism. There is more than one type of plagiarism! Many students are surprised to discover that practices teachers in high school overlooked are considered academically dishonest in a university setting. This guide to the Plagiarism Spectrum will help familiarize you with different types of plagiarism.

The librarians at the Robeson Library in Camden have created an excellent tutorial on plagiarism for Rutgers students.

Citing sources properly is one of the key skills you learn as an academically honest scholar. The resources in the boxes below regarding citation management, note taking and creating bibliographies will help you write scholarly works with integrity.

Ways to Create "Automatic" Bibliographies

Adapted from: Roberta L. Tipton, Dana Library, Academic Integrity Workshops


Format and manage your List of Works Cited, working bibliography, and annotated bibliography with RefWorks.   RefWorks suggests that you pick a new password for yourself, something different from your Net ID. This gives you just a bit of added protection from hackers. Activate the RefGrab-It feature to import information on websites. (See the Tools menu for download instructions.)


More info on RefWorks:


RefWorks: Logging in as a Rutgers User (one of a series of YouTube videos from librarians at the Library of Science and Medicine, Rutgers)

Database Outputs

The following database families, among others, will produce very good Chicago Style bibliographies: Ebsco, CSA Illumina, H.W. Wilson, and ProQuest. You must always check their output against your Chicgo Style reference manuals to make sure all the elements are correct.

More on Chicago Style

Adapted from: Roberta L. Tipton, Dana Library, Academic Integrity Workshops

Chicago Style Formatting and Style Guide (Purdue University Online Writing Laboratory)

Based on the print The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition [Dana Reference Desk #270, Z253.U69 2010]

Frequently Asked Questions about The Chicago Manual Style

Avoiding Plagiarism

Adapted from: Roberta L. Tipton, Dana Library, Academic Integrity Workshops

What Needs to Be Cited  (Reformatted from an unpublished lesson by Dr. Carter Daniel, Rutgers Business School)

"You must acknowledge not just

  1. Direct quotations, but
  2. Paraphrases of what somebody else said even though you've re-phrased it in your own words,
  3. Ideas you've picked up from a source, and even
  4. Any fact that isn't common knowledge.

In short, you have to acknowledge everything you've gotten from a source."  (Daniel, 2009)

Organizing and Taking Notes to Avoid Plagiarism  (Adapted from Miller 219-20)

  • Make separate folders in your word processor or email account for each paper or project.
  • Document what you find as you go by sending references, abstracts (article summaries), and even full text to yourself as you discover them.
  • Keep all your downloads, output from periodical indexes and databases, lists of sources, electronic documents, and notes you write for each project together in the same folder (Miller 419).
  • For your own protection, keep your searches, working bibliographies, note files, and versions of the paper until you receive your final grade for the course.
  • Take notes in a way that automatically avoids plagiarism. All you have to do is:

a) Key every one of your notes to a source and page number; and  

b) Differentiate clearly between the material you have quoted and your own words as you take notes.

Your notes page might look like this:

Miller, 2000 [source]

p. 419 "Using e-mail to collect citations allows the researcher to reformat them into a working bibliography on the computer and operating system that will be used to do the majority of the word processing." [Quotation, fact or even paraphrase and exact page number]

My note:  You should save your electronic searches in your email, even if you print them out somewhere for convenience. [These are your own words and thoughts about what you have read. Invent your own code if you wish, but be sure to label your own words to keep them separate from what you have read. If you used a paraphrase/explanation in your own words, you would still give it an in-text citation, just like the direct quotation.]

About Bibliographies

Adapted from: Roberta L. Tipton, Dana Library, Academic Integrity Workshops

A "working bibliography" is a list of the sources you found that you believe are most likely to give you the information you need.  (Adapted from Miller 218-9.)

As you use the items, you can type in comments about each in a notes folder. Or, you can turn one copy of your working bibliography into your notes page while a second copy forms the basis of the List of Works Cited. With electronic documents, both of these variations and more are possible.

Here is an example of a bibliography entry using a print periodical article in Chicago format:

Miller, Kristin. "Developing Good Research Habits: Encourage Students to Create a Working Bibliography Online." College & Research Libraries News 61 (2000): 418-20.

Tips on Annotated Bibliographies

Information about annotated bibliographies in Chicago Style format can be found at the bottom of Annotated Bibligraphy Sample Page from the Purdue OWL:


Daniel, Carter A. Unpublished lesson, 8 Dec. 2009.

Miller, Kristin. "Developing Good Research Habits: Encourage Students to Create a Working Bibliography Online." College & Research Libraries News. 61 (2000): 418-20.

Tipton, Roberta."Academic Integrity Workshops: Documenting and Citing." Rutgers University John Cotton Dana Library, October, 2010,


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