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Nursing Undergraduate Student Library Research Guide: Citing using APA style

Information to support undergraduate students as they become proficient users of library resources and services

What is Plagiarism?

        Plagiarism is defined as stealing and using the ideas of another as one's own.  In the academic world, this is considered a very serious charge.  Students can be expelled from the University, and faculty can lose their jobs and their professional standing over this issue..   Plagiarism can be avoided by precision in citing your sources fully and accurately.  When in doubt, cite!

         The librarians at Robeson Library on the Camden Campus have produced a three-part video series on the dangers of plagiarism and how to avoid them.     

Organizing and Taking Notes to Avoid Plagiarism

Use a Working Bibliography to Document Sources  (Adapted from Miller 418-419)

A "working bibliography" is a list of the sources you found that you believe are most likely to give you the information you need. 

As you use the items, you can type in comments about each in a notes folder. Or, you can turn one copy of your working bibliography into your notes page while a second copy forms the basis of your bibliography or Works Cited page. With electronic documents, both of these variations and more are possible.

Organize to Avoid Plagiarism  (Adapted from Miller 419-420)

  • Make separate folders in your word processor, citation manager, or email account for each paper or project.

  • Document what you find as you go by sending references, abstracts (article summaries), and even full text to yourself as you discover them.  If you use RefWorks or another citation manager, export your items so that you keep track of everything.

  • Keep all your downloads, output from periodical indexes and databases, lists of sources, electronic documents, and notes you write for each project together in the same folder (Miller 419).

  • For your own protection, keep your searches, working bibliographies, note files, and versions of the paper until you receive your final grade for the course.

  • Take notes in a way that automatically avoids plagiarism. All you have to do is:

a) Key every one of your notes to a source and page number; and      

b) Differentiate clearly between the material you have quoted and your own words as you take notes.

Here is an example of a bibliography entry using an online periodical article in APA 6th format:

References

Miller, K. (2000). Developing good research habits: Encourage students to create a working bibliography online.College & Research Libraries News, 61(5), 418-420. Retrieved from https://login.proxy.libraries.rutgers.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=llf&AN=502847868&site=ehost-live

 

Your notes page might look like this:

 

Miller, 2000 [source]

 

p. 419 "Using e-mail to collect citations allows the researcher to reformat them into a working bibliography on the computer and operating system that will be used to do the majority of the word processing." [Quotation, fact, or even paraphrase and exact page number]

 

My note:  You should save your electronic searches in your email, even if you print them out somewhere for convenience. [These are your own words and thoughts about what you have read. Invent your own code if you wish, but be sure to label your own words to keep them separate from what you have read. If you used a paraphrase/explanation in your own words, you would still give it an in-text citation, just like the direct quotation.]

 

What Needs to Be Cited  (Reformatted from an unpublished lesson by Dr. Carter Daniel, Rutgers Business School)

 

"You must acknowledge not just

  1. Direct quotations, but

  2. Paraphrases of what somebody else said even though you've re-phrased it in your own words,

  3. Ideas you've picked up from a source, and even

  4. Any fact that isn't common knowledge.

In short, you have to acknowledge everything you've gotten from a source"  (Daniel, C.A., 2009).

References

Daniel, C.A. (2009). Unpublished lesson.

Miller, K. (2000). Developing good research habits: Encourage students to create a working bibliography online.College & Research Libraries News, 61(5), 418-420. Retrieved from https://login.proxy.libraries.rutgers.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=llf&AN=502847868&site=ehost-live

Using APA to Cite Sources

The following sources will provide you with the basics in using APA format. 

APA Formatting and Style Guide from Purdue's Online Writing Lab. Note especially the page on in-text citations to avoid plagiarism.

APA Style Essentials from Douglas Degelman, Ph.D., and Martin Lorenzo Harris, Ph.D., Vanguard University of Southern California.  Authors include details about formatting such as spacing, tabs, and a downloadable template for Microsoft Word. They have also linked a sample paper and a sample proposal.

APA Style Tips from the APA includes information about writing without bias and citing electronic resources.  Be sure to look at the sidebar as well as the page section titled Style Topics.

APA Reference Examples

Book

Hinton, A. L. (1999). Biocultural approaches to the emotions. Cambridge, U.K; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Scholarly Article from an Online Database (with and without doi)

Yarcheski, A., Mahon, N., Yarcheski, T., Hanks, M., & Cannella, B. (2009). A meta-analytic study of predictors of maternal-fetal attachment. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46(5), 708-715. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.10.013

Yarcheski, A., Mahon, N., Yarcheski, T., Hanks, M., & Cannella, B. (2009). A meta-analytic study of predictors of maternal-fetal attachment. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46(5), 708-715. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com.

Article from a Scholarly Journal (Print)

Watson, J. D., & Crick, F. H. (1953). A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid. Nature, 171, 737-738.

Article from a Newspaper (Online Database)

Tax incentives reform: Still not the answer to N.J.’s fiscal crisis. (2019, January 29). Star-Ledger, The (Newark, NJ), p. 014. Retrieved from NewsBank: https://infoweb.newsbank.com/

Non-Periodical Web Document, Web Page, or Report

Paiz, J., Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M.,…Keck, R. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from. , from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

 

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