Your last step before actually working with your evidence is to screen all included studies for risk of bias, and critically appraise them for quality. As with many steps in this process, there are many frameworks and formulations of appraisal that can help you systematically review your included studies for bias and quality.
Guidance from Prisma (2020):
"Specify the methods used to assess risk of bias in the included studies, including details of the tool(s) used, how many reviewers assessed each study and whether they worked independently, and, if applicable, details of automation tools used in the process." - p. 11
The following is a very comprehensive list of critical appraisal tools. Each tool corresponds to either a body of knowledge or a specific type of study or research method. Be sure to use a tool that matches the subject, method, and/or study type of the tool you're use to appraise.
Validity assessment tools for evidence synthesis
Adapted from Duquesne University Libraries
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