Skip to Main Content

Middle Eastern Studies

Resources and content of interest for researchers and students of Middle Eastern Studies

Languages of the Middle East

The main languages of the Middle East are Arabic, Hebrew, Turkish and Persian. Rutgers offers courses in all four.

For Hebrew please use the Jewish Studies Library guide.


Ethnologue: a world language database.

Middle East Languages

Languages of the Middle East, created by Joseph Westendorf

Official languages of the Middle East Map created by Joseph Westendorf


Arabic is the primary language of the Middle East.


Arabic at Rutgers

Arabic Collections Online

Arabic Collections Online (ACO) is a publicly available digital library of public domain of Arabic language content.


Arabic Language and Linguistics by Katz, E. Graham.; Bassiouney, Reem, 2012, online.

The Arabic Language by Versteegh, C. H. M.,  Alexander and Robeson libraries, PJ6075.V46 1997

A Cultural History of the Arabic Language by Sharron Gu, Alexander Library, PJ6075.G8 2014

Standard Arabic an Advanced Course by Cambridge University Press (2018), accessible at Cambridge Histories Online. Designed for those taking advanced Arabic, so for those who have taken it for over a year at least. 


Persian is the official language of Iran (also called Farsi).


Persian at Rutgers

Persian by Mahootian, Shahrzad.; Gebhardt, Lewis, Alexander Library PK6233.M34 1997



Turkish is spoken mostly in Turkey. 


Turkish at Rutgers

Turkish by Jaklin Kornfilt, Alexander Library PL121.K65 1997


© , Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Rutgers is an equal access/equal opportunity institution. Individuals with disabilities are encouraged to direct suggestions, comments, or complaints concerning any accessibility issues with Rutgers websites to or complete the Report Accessibility Barrier / Provide Feedback form.