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Japanese Americans - Perspectives on Trans-Pacific Relations, WWII Internment, Meaning of Loyalty, Motherhood & Childhood, and Labor at Seabrook

Background information on the incarceration of people of Japanese descent during the World War II.

Historical Narratives and Fiction

Houston, Julie Wakatsuki. Farewell to Manzanar. New York: Bantam, 1974. 

Morrill, Jan. The Red Kimono. The University of Arkansas Press, 2013. 

Okubo, Mine. Citizen 13660 [Graphic Novel]. The University of Washington Press, 2014. 

Okada, John. No-no Boy. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1979.

Otsuka, Julie. The Buddha in the Attic. PEN/Faulkner Award - Fiction. 2012 winne ed. New York: Anchor Books, 2012.

- - - - - - - - - - . When the Emperor was Divine. London: Penguin, 2002. 

Russel, Jan Jarboe. The Train to Crystal City: FDR's Secret Prisoner Exchange Program and America's Only Family Internment Camp During World War II. New York: Scribner, 2015.

Sakamoto, Pamela Rotner. Midnight in Broad Daylight: a Japanese American Family caught between two Worlds. New York,: Harper, 2016. 


Asato, Julie, Justin Lin, Daric Loo, University of California, Los Angeles.Asian American, Studies Center, Japanese American National Museum, and Calif.). Interactions. Series: Once Upon a Camp. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Asian American Studies Center ; Japanese American National Museum, 2001.

  • Chronicles four high school students as they are given four days to tackle one mission: find out what life was like for teenagers in Japanese American concentration camps during World War II.

Boch, Akira. Beyond the Japanese garden stories of Japanese American gardeners & the gardens: short films & documentaries. Japanese American National Museum, 2007. 

  • The DVD is a collection of media, stories, and artifacts from the exhibition "Landscaping America: Beyond the Japanese garden" held at the Japanese American National Museum June 17, 2007-Jan. 6, 2008.

Ding, Loni et al.  The Color of honor: the Japanese American soldier in WWII. Berkeley, Center for Educational Telecommunications, 2001. 

  • Portraits the experiences of Japanese Americans during World War II who served in the U.S. Armed Forces as translators and interpreters in military intelligence. These linguists ell of their experiences in gathering intelligence for the U.S. war effort. 

Hattendorf, Linda. The Cats of Mirikitani. distributed by the Center for Asian American Media, 2006. 

  • Jimmy Tsutomu Mirikitani (1920-2012), a Kibei who grew up in Hiroshima, returned to the United States shortly before he and his family were interned at Tule Lake. Many of his friends and relatives in Japan were lost to to the atomic bomb in Hiroshima. After a sejourn in Seabrook, NJ and a job as a cook, Jimmy becomes homeless creating art on the streets of New York City.  But when 9/11 threatens his life and a local filmmaker brings him to her home, the two embark on a journey to confront Jimmy's painful past. An intimate exploration of the profound wounds of war and the healing powers of friendship and art.

Ina, Satsuki, Stephen Holsapple, Lawson Fusao Inada, National Asian American Telecommunications, and Association. Children of the Camps: a Documentary and Educational Project. San Francisco, CA: Distributed by National Asian American Telecommunications Asssociation, 1999.

  • Part of the Children of the camps educational project, this video shares the experiences, cultural and familial issues, and the long internalized grief and shame felt by six Japanese Americans who were incarcerated in internment camps as children during World War II.

Ina, Satsuki, Stephen Holsapple, Emery Clay III. From a Silk Cocoon. San Francisco: Center for Asian American Media, 2005.

  • Tells the story of a young couple, Shizuko and Itaru Ina, who responded to the loss of their civil liberties by renouncing their American citizenship during their four and a half year internment during World War II, who committed their hopes for their children's future to a better life in Japan. Based on personal documents that detail a daily accounting of life and private emotional upheaval during incarceration, separation and reunification. Interviews with other Japanese speaking former internees who ultimately sought refuge from their imprisonment by declaring their loyalty to Japan present disturbing disclosures of unjustified treatment and suffering.

Ko, Veronica, Jennifer Kim, Karen Ishizuka, Marcus Toji, University of California,Los Angeles.Asian American, Studies Center, Japanese American National Museum, and Calif.). Dear Miss Breed. Series: Once upon a Camp. English version ed. Los Angelos, CA: UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 2001.

  • The real life story of how San Diego children's librarian Clara Breed became an unlikely hero to Japanese American youth in one of America's concentration camps in Poston, Arizona.

Omori, Emiko, Chizuko Omori, Frank Emi, New Day Films, and Wabi-Sabi Productions. Rabbit in the Moon. Hohokus, N.J.: New Day Films, 2004.

  • A documentary/memoir about the 120,000 Japanese American who were imprisoned in the Japanese American internment camps during WWII.1999 Sundance Film Festival, Best Documentary Cinematography award.

Tajiri, Rea and Women Make Movies. History and Memory (for Akiko and Takashige). New York, NY: Women Make Movies, 2008.

  • Through collective history and personal memory, the impact of the evacuation and relocation of Japanese Americans in the United States during World War II is examined.

Uchida, Yoshiko Bracelet, Joanna Bracelet Yardley, John Esaki, Jennifer Kim, Patty Nagano, University of California,Los Angeles.Asian American, Studies Center, Japanese American National Museum, and Calif.). The Bracelet . Series: Once upon a Camp. Los Angelos, CA: UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 2001.

  • A video presentation of Yoshiko Uchida's children's book about a gift from the heart and friends separated by war. Joanna Yardley's original illustrations are intercut with rare home movies and historic photographs to tell this heartwarming story of emotional growth and understanding. Teacher Patty Nagano conducts a discussion and activities with a 2nd grade class after the story. 


"Family Ties." Chronicle of Higher Education 52, no. 41 (06/16, 2006): A9-A9.

Adachi, Nobuko (ed.) Japanese and Nikkei at Home and Abroad: Negotiating Identities in a Global World. Amherst: Cambria, 2010. 

Adachi, Nobuko (ed.) Japanese Diasporas: Unsung Pasts, Conflicting Presents, and Uncertain Futures. London, New York: Routledge, 2006. 

Adams, Ansel. Born Free and Equal: the story of loyal Japanese Americans, Manzanar Relocation Center, Inyo County, California. Bishop, CA: Spotted Dog Press, 2002. 

Akiyama, Cliff. "When You Look Like the Enemy." Brief Treatment & Crisis Intervention 8, no. 2 (05, 2008): 209-213.

AUSTIN, ALLAN W. "Superman Goes to War: Teaching Japanese American Exile and Incarceration with Film." Journal of American Ethnic History 30, no. 4 (Summer2011, 2011): 51-56.

Azuma, Eiichiro. Between Two Empires : Race, History, and Transnationalism in Japanese America. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Bishop, Ronald. "Little More than Minutes": How Two Wyoming Community Newspapers Covered the Construction of the Heart Mountain Internment Camp." American Journalism 26, no. 3 (Summer2009, 2009): 7-32.

Conrad, Carol B. "Teaching with Online Primary Sources: Documents from the National Archives." Teaching History: A Journal of Methods 33, no. 1 (Spring2008, 2008): 33-42.

Daniels, Roger. "Incarceration of the Japanese Americans: A Sixty-Year Perspective." History Teacher 35, no. 3 (05, 2002): 297.

Day, Iyko. "Alien Intimacies: The Coloniality of Japanese Internment in Australia, Canada, and the U.S." Amerasia Journal 36, no. 2 (08, 2010): 107-124.

Dusselier, Jane E. Artifacts of Loss : Crafting Survival in Japanese American Concentration Camps. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press, 2008.

Ewers, Justin. "Journey into a Dark Past." U.S.News & World Report 144, no. 14 (05/19, 2008): 32-35.

Flamiano, Dolores and DOLORES FLAMIANO. "Japanese American Internment in Popular Magazines." Journalism History 36, no. 1 (Spring2010, 2010): 23-35.

Gall, Susan B. and Timothy L. Gall. Statistical Record of Asian Americans. 1st ed. Detroit: Gale Research Inc., 1993.

Ginsburg, Elizabeth Fine. ""Students were Stunned… at the Sudden Disappearance of our Japanese Classmates"." Western States Jewish History 43, no. 3 (Spring, 2011): 51-58.

GORDON, LINDA. "Dorothea Lange's Oregon Photography: Assumptions Challenged." Oregon Historical Quarterly 110, no. 4 (Winter2009, 2009): 570-597.

Hayashi, Brian Masaru. Democratizing the Enemy : The Japanese American Internment. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 2004.

Henks, Hillary. "Bronzeville, Little Tokyo, and the Unstable Geography of Race in Post-World War Ii Los Angeles." Southern California Quarterly 93, no. 2 (Summer2011, 2011): 201-235.

Hirasuna, Delphine and Hinrichs Kit. The Art of Gaman: Arts and Crafts from the Japanese Internment Crafts, 1942-1946. Berkeley: Ten speed Press, 2005. 

Ichioka, Yuji. "Japanese Immigrant Nationalism, the Issei and the Sino-Japanese War, 1937-1941." California History 69, no. 3 (09, 1990): 260-275.

———. "The Meaning of Loyalty: The Case of Kazumaro Buddy Uno." Amerasia Journal 23, no. 3 (12, 1997): 44.

INOUYE, KAREN M. "Viewing World War II Internment through Emiko Omori's Rabbit in the Moon." Journal of American Ethnic History 30, no. 4 (Summer2011, 2011): 31-37.

Ishizuka, Karen L., Japanese American National Museum, and Calif.). Lost and found : Reclaiming the Japanese American Incarceration. Asian American Experience. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2006.

Japanese American National Museum (Los Angeles, Calif.). Japanese American Curriculum Framework. Los Angeles, Calif. (369 E. First St: Los Angeles, 90012).

Jenks, Hillary. "Claiming the Oriental Gateway: Prewar Seattle and Japanese America." Pacific Historical Review 81, no. 1 (02, 2012): 117-119.

Kikumura-Yano, Akemi, Lane Ryo Hirabayashi, and James A. Hirabayashi. Common Ground: The Japanese American National Museum and the Culture of Collaborations. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2005.

Kozen, Cathleen K. "Redress as American-Style Justice: Congressional Narratives of Japanese American Redress at the End of the Cold War." Time & Society 21, no. 1 (03, 2012): 104-120.

Kuramitsu, Kristine C. "Internment and Identity in Japanese American Art." American Quarterly 47, no. 4 (12, 1995): 619.

Kurashige, Lon. "The Problem of Biculturalism: Japanese American Identity and Festival before World War II." Journal of American History 86, no. 4 (03, 2000): 1632-1654.

Luther, Catherine A. "Reflections of Cultural Identities in Conflict." Journalism History 29, no. 2 (Summer2003, 2003): 69-81.

Mackey, Mike. "Introduction: Life in America's Concentration Camps." Journal of the West 38, no. 2 (04, 1999): 9-13.

Nagano, Paul M. "Serious Injustices I: American Baptists and the Japanese American Internment." American Baptist Quarterly 17, no. 2 (03, 1998): 81-144.

Nakamura, Kelli Y. "“They are our Human Secret Weapons”: The Military Intelligence Service and the Role of Japanese-Americans in the Pacific War and in the Occupation of Japan." Historian 70, no. 1 (Spring2008, 2008): 54-74.

Ngai, Mae M. "The World War II Internment of Japanese Americans and the Citizenship Renunciation Cases." Chap. Chapter 5, In Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America, edited by Ngai, Mae M., 175. Princeton, Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2004.

Niiya, Brian, Japanese American National Museum, and Calif.). Encyclopedia of Japanese American History : An A-to-Z Reference from 1868 to the Present. Facts on File Library of American History. Updated ed. New York: Facts on File, 2001.

Paik, A. N. "Testifying to Rightlessness." Social Text 28, no. 3 (Fall2010, 2010): 39-65.

Robinson, Greg. "Nisei in Gotham: The Jacd and Japanese Americans in 1940s New York." Prospects 30, (10, 2005): 581-595.

———. "What i did in Camp: Interpreting Japanese American Internment Narratives of Isamu Noguchi, MinÉ Okubo, Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston, and John Tateishi." Amerasia Journal 30, no. 2 (08, 2004): 49-58.

Sairenji, Ayako. "A Pure Land in the East: Study of a Sangha in New York: Influence of Internment Camps on Community Development." Asian American Policy Review 20, (01, 2011): 57-66.

Sharpe, Michael O. Poscolonial Citizens and Ethnic Migration. Houndmill, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave, 2014. 

Shortlidge, Jack. "The Seabrook Educational and Cultural Center: Telling the Story of a Japanese American Community in Southern New Jersey." Voices: The Journal of New York Folklore 31, no. 1 (03, 2005): 38-42.

Simpson, Caroline Chung. An Absent Presence : Japanese Americans in Postwar American Culture, 1945-1960. New Americanists. Durham N.C.; London: Duke University Press, 2001.

Takamori, Ayako. "Rethinking Japanese American “heritage” in the Homeland." Critical Asian Studies 42, no. 2 (06, 2010): 217-238.

Tanaka, Janice, Nancy Penn, National Asian American Telecommunications, Association, Fo Fum Productions, and NAATA Distribution. Who's Going to Pay for these Donuts, Anyway? [Videorecording]. San Francisco: Distributed by NAATA Distribution, 1999.

Wang, ShiPu. "Japan Against Japan." American Art 22, no. 1 (Spring2008, 2008): 28-51.

Ward, Jason Morgan. ""no Jap Crow": Japanese Americans Encounter the World War II South." Journal of Southern History 73, no. 1 (02, 2007): 75-104.

Waseda, Minako. "Extraordinary Circumstances, Exceptional Practices: Music in Japanese American Concentration Camps." Journal of Asian American Studies 8, no. 2 (09/15, 2005): 171-209.

Weglyn, Michi. Years of Infamy: the Untold Story of America's Concentration Camps. Seattle: U. of Washington Press, 1996.

Wilson, Robert. "Landscapes of Promise and Betrayal: Reclamation, Homesteading, and Japanese American Incarceration." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 101, no. 2 (03, 2011): 424-444.

Wu, Frank H. "Difficult Decisions during Wartime: A Letter from a Non-Alien in an Internment Camp to a Friend Back Home." Case Western Reserve Law Review 54, no. 4 (Summer2004, 2004): 1301-1345.


Japanese Settlers in Korea

Uchida, Jun. Brokers of empire: Japanese settler colonialism in Korea, 1876-1945. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2011.

Watkins, Yoko Kawashima. So far from the bamboo grove. New York: Puffin, 1987.


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