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Citing Sources of Information: Writing for the Health Sciences

This LibGuide was designed to provide you with assistance in citing your sources when writing an academic paper.

Rutgers University Policy on Plagiarism

Plagiarism Defined:  

In the policy on academic integrity, the University defines plagiarism as

the representation of the words or ideas of another as one's own in any academic work. To avoid plagiarism, every direct quotation must be identified by quotation marks, or by appropriate indentation, and must be cited properly according to the accepted format for the particular discipline.  Acknowledgment is also required when material from any source is paraphrased or summarized in whole or in part in one's own words.  To acknowledge a paraphrase properly, one might state: to paraphrase Plato's comment... and conclude with a footnote or appropriate citation to identify the exact reference.  A footnote acknowledging only a directly quoted statement does not suffice to notify the reader of any preceding or succeeding paraphrased material. Information that is common knowledge, such as names of leaders of prominent nations, basic scientific laws, etc, need not be cited; however, the sources of all facts or information obtained in reading or research that are not common knowledge among students in the course must be acknowledged.  In addition to materials specifically cited in the text, other materials that contribute to one's general understanding of the subject may be acknowledged in the bibliography.

Sometimes, plagiarism can be a subtle issue. Students should be encouraged to discuss any questions about what constitutes plagiarism with the faculty member teaching the course.  (Academic Integrity Policy, Section 2C)

Basically, your work needs to be yours. But while the policy focuses on misusing printed sources by failing to paraphrase or use quotation, any time your work is not your own you're plagiarizing. And that makes it much more complicated, because sometimes what you think is your work isn't fully your work, and that can lead to problems with plagiarism.


Plagiarism and Anti-Plagiarism

Rutgers University – Newark

This is a guide for instructors. It contains recent press releases and articles on the topic, as well as useful resources from the Internet.

Academic Integrity and Plagiarism

Texas A&M University Libraries

This collection of online tutorials covers a broad range of topics related to plagiarism and academic integrity, including the importance of citing sources correctly and the consequences if a user does not.

Avoiding Plagiarism

The Writing Place, Northwestern University

This page contains basic information about unintentional plagiarism.

Guide to Plagiarism and Academic Integrity

Northern Arizona University

Contains a useful definition and links to other academic institution’s resources on the topic.

How to Avoid Plagiarism

University of Maryland University College

This site presents two versions of a tutorial on citing sources of information: one is in HTML and the other is a FLASH tutorial. Both present information on basic guidelines and have a post-module assessment.

Online Instructional Resources: Academic Integrity and Classroom Management: Academic Integrity/Plagiarism

Michigan State University

A site with a broad range of options, this has a special section on information for students, plus news about electronic detection methods.

Oops, I Thought Your Words Were Mine

UCLA Libraries

A humorous tutorial on the topic, providing good examples. It covers intellectual property, file sharing, and citing sources of information, among other topics.

The Learning Center

The Learning Center is designed to help educators and students develop a better sense of what plagiarism means in the information age, and to teach the planning, organizational, and citation skills essential for producing quality writing and research. The site offers lots of information, including helpful definitions and handouts.

The Plagiarism Tutorial

Indiana State University, Cunningham Library

While aimed at undergraduate students, this online tutorial provides sound basic information, complete with examples and a handy checklist.

Plagiarism Tutorial

North Carolina State University

This is a very thorough online tutorial on the topic.

The St. Martin’s Tutorial on Avoiding Plagiarism

University of Massachusetts – Amherst

In order to use this online tutorial, students must first register for a free account. There are interesting sections on taking good notes, organizing research, and integrating quoted sources within a paper. The tutorial also contains online exercises.

UC DAVIS Student Judicial Affairs on Avoiding Plagiarism
The University of California Davis' Student Judicial Affairs group provides good directions on avoiding plagiarism.

How to Recognize Plagiarism: Tutorials and Tests

Indiana University (Bloomington) School of Education

Although portions of this resource pertain to IU and it’s own standards, there are sections containing a useful overview and links to Web sites which have real plagiarism cases.

Welcome to the Plagiarism Tutorial

University Libraries, The University of Southern Mississippi

This online tutorial was adapted from a book, The Plagiarism Handbook: Strategies for Preventing, Detecting, and Dealing with Plagiarism (2001. Los Angeles: Pyrczak Publishing) by Robert A. Harris, R.A. It contains pre-and post-tests as well as exercises to reinforce concepts and measure learning achieved.

What You Need to Know About Plagiarism

New Jersey State Bar Foundation

This is a PDF copy of a document which defines plagiarism and contains an FAQ to guide users in proper citation formats.



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