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Punishment and Society

Encyclopedias

Social History of Crime and Punishment in America: An Encyclopedia
Wilbur R. Miller, editor. Thousand Oaks, Calif., SAGE Publications, 2012.
"This five-volume work surveys the history and philosophy of crime, punishment, and criminal justice institutions in America from colonial times to the present. It covers the whole of the criminal justice system, from crimes, law enforcement and policing, to courts, corrections and human services." Rutgers-restricted Access
World Encyclopedia of Police Forces and Correctional Systems
George Thomas Kurian. 2nd edition. Detroit, Thomson Gale, 2006. 2 vols. Rutgers-restricted Access

Crime and Punishment in the U.S.

American Exceptionalism in Crime and Punishment
Kevin R. Reitz. New York, Oxford University Press, 2017.
"Across the U.S., there was an explosion of severity in nearly every form of governmental response to crime from the 1970s through the 2000s. This book examines the typically ignored forms punishment in America beyond incarceration and capital punishment to include probation and parole supervision rates-and revocation rates, an ever-growing list of economic penalties imposed on offenders, and a web of collateral consequences of conviction unimaginable just decades ago. Across these domains, American punitiveness exceeds that in other developed democracies-where measurable, by factors of five-to-ten." Rutgers-restricted Access
Beyond These Walls: Rethinking Crime and Punishment in the United States
Tony Platt. New York, St. Martin's Press, 2019.
"Tracks the legacy of crime and imprisonment in the United States, from the historical roots of the American criminal justice system to our modern state of over-incarceration, and offers a bold vision for a new future."Available?

Europe

European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ): Country Profiles
Judicial information for each of the 46 Council of Europe member states, including links to relevant judicial institutions in that country; legal resources; and recent developments in the judicial field.
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