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RU Citing? Solutions & Strategies for Avoiding Plagiarism: How to Cite

Comprehensive collection of information and resources about plagiarism

Citation Methods

There are three main citation methods:

  • APA (American Psychological Association) which is mainly used by Education, Psychology and Sciences
  • MLA (Modern Language Association) format which is used by is used by the Humanities
  • Chicago style is generally used by Business, History, and the Fine Arts

Each style has different formatting rules and guides for citing correctly. You can use this page as a guide, but be sure to also check out the Purdue Owl citation guide.

MLA

MLA style has parenthetical references for in-text citations and a works-cited list.

For in-text citations you cite (paraphrases, direct quotations or summary) the format is the author's name and page number in parentheses, with punctuation going outside of the parentheses.

Ex: Taylor argued that "Great Britain and France did nothing to help the Poles, and little to help themselves" (Taylor 278).

For more examples check out the Purdue Writing Guide.

For the Works Cited page, examples are shown below. A works-cited list is in alphabetical order.

Books

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Book. Publisher location and company, Publication Date.

Bettelheim, Bruno. The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales. New York: Knopf, 1976. Print.

Articles

Author(s) Last Name, Author(s) First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, Pages.

Custer, William S. "Medicare Advantage as a Model for Affordable Care Act Marketplaces." Journal of Financial Service Professionals, vol. 71, no. 1, 2017, pp. 40-42.

To cite a page on a website

Author name (if available), "Page name," Publisher, Date of creation (if available), URL, Date accessed.

"Rutgers Admissions | What Programs of Study Does Rutgers Offer?" Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 2009, http://admissions.rutgers.edu/academics/majors.aspx, Accessed 17 Feb. 2017.

 

APA

APA style uses parenthetical references to cite within the body of the paper, and a reference list to cite at the end of the document. A typical parenthetical reference consists of the author's last name followed by a comma then the year of publication.

Ex: Many people exhibit symptoms of depression after the death of a pet (Russo, 2000).

However, when quoting directly, include the page umber in parentheses after the quotation.

Ex: Children from one-parent homes read at "a significantly lower level than those from two-parent homes" (Weston, p.58).

Citing in a reference list:

Books

Author Last Name, Author First Initial(s). (Year). Title: Subtitle (if applicable). Location: Publisher. Note: Location is always listed as City, State (ex. New Brunswick, NJ), and only the first word of the title, along with the first word of the subtitle and proper nouns are capitalized.

Mitchell, M. (1936). Gone with the wind. New York, NY: Macmillan.

Articles

Author Last Name, Author First Initial(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. Retrieved from: permalink.

Custer, W.S. (2017). Medicare advantage as a model for affordable care act marketplaces. Journal of Financial Service Professionals, 71(1), 40-42. Note: Only first word is capitalized.

Websites

Author Last Name, Author First Initial (if applicable, otherwise use organization). (Year). Title of page. Retrieved date, from URL.

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. (2009). Rutgers Admissions | What Programs of Study Does Rutgers Offer? Retrieved from http://admissions.rutgers.edu/academics/majors.aspx.

Rutgers University | The State University of New Jersey. (2017). Retrieved February 17, 2017, from http://www.rutgers.edu/
Rutgers University | The State University of New Jersey. (2017). Retrieved February 17, 2017, from http://www.rutgers.edu/

Chicago

Chicago Style citations actually give writers two different choices with citing: the Author-Date System and the Notes-Bibliography system. This entry will deal with the Notes-Bibliography system. The Author-Date system is very similar to APA, and uses parenthetical citations in the text with the author's last name and the date of publication.

The Notes-Bibliography system uses numbered footnotes in the text to direct readers to the footnote at the bottom of the page (or an endnote at the end of the text) for the citation.

Ex: The Text is: By November of 1942, the Allies had proof that the Nazis were engaged in the systematic killing of Jews. 1

1. David S. Wyman, The Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust 1941-1945 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1984), 65.

For the first reference to a work the full citation is needed, in subsequent references to the same work, list the author's last name, an abbreviated title, and a page number.
Ex. 5. Wyman, Abandonment of the Jews, 61.
Remember, the format in footnotes is slightly different than format in the Bibliography. Footnotes go First name-last name and have parentheses around the publishing information, while in the Bibliography it goes last name-first name, and has periods instead of commas.

Books

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title. Location: Publisher, Year. Note: You can use just the city name for the location if the city is well known (ex. New York).  Otherwise, use city and state (ex. Clark, NJ).

Dallek, Robert. An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy 1917-1963. New York: Little Brown, 2003. 

Articles

Author Last Name, Author First Name. "Article title." Journal title Volume Number, Issue Number (Year): Page Number (if applicable)

Custer, William S. "Medicare Advantage as a Model for Affordable Care Act Marketplaces." Journal of Financial Service Professionals 71, no. 1 (2017): 40-42, accessed February 17, 2017, https://login.proxy.libraries.rutgers.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&AN=120347237&site=eds-live.

Websites

Author First Name, Author Last Name (if known). "Page Name," Website Name, Date Last Modified (if known), URL.

"Rutgers Admissions | What Programs of Study Does Rutgers Offer?" Rutgers Undergraduate Admissions, 2009, http://admissions.rutgers.edu/academics/majors.aspx.

 

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