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Environmental Inequality in Postwar America: Newark Environmental Health

Environmental Health Division

Newark Environmental Health Division.
The Environmental Health Division of the Department of Child and Family Wellbeing provides comprehensive delivery of inspection services, investigations, and education programs to citizens and consumers in order to assure a healthful and protected environment. The Division includes: Animal Control; Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program; Food & Drug Bureau; Lead Safe House; Rodent Control; and Weights and Measures.

Water Quality

Newark Annual Water Quality Reports
City of Newark's Lead Service Line Replacement Program
Actions that Newark is undertaking to reduce or eliminate lead in drinking water.
City of Newark Point-of-Use Filter Study August - September 2019
CDM Smith, November 19, 2019
EPA in New Jersey: Newark Drinking Water
Following the Newark, NJ Drinking Water Lead Crisis
Morgan Clauser. Gettysburg Social Sciences Review 3(2), 2019.

Ironbound Environmental History

Ironbound Voices
Newsletter of the Ironbound Community Corporation of Newark. 1978-2001.
Ironbound Environmental Justice History and Resource Center
A project of the Ironbound Community Corporation of Newark, the IEJHRC is housed at the Van Buren Branch of the Newark Public Library (140 Van Buren Street) and is open to the public.
Garbage Governmentalities and Environmental Justice in New Jersey
Raysa Martinez Kruger. (Ph.D. Thesis) Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 2017. "Using the Ironbound neighborhood of Newark and Essex County as a case study area, this dissertation examines how conditions of environmental injustice in the Ironbound are produced and perpetuated by the collective enactment of our governmental approaches to the problem of increasing garbage production in New Jersey since the 1870s."
“A Phenomenological Understanding of Residents’ Emotional Distress of Living in an Environmental Justice Community.”
Gabriela Dory, et al. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being 12(1), January 2017, pp. 1-10.
"This study applies a descriptive phenomenological method to explore and describe the emotional experience of residents living in Ironbound, a known EJ community located in Newark, New Jersey." Rutgers-restricted Access
When Nature is Rats and Roaches: Religious Eco-Justice Activism in Newark, NJ
Matthew B. Immergut and Laurel Kearns. Journal for the Study of Religion Nature and Culture 6, 2012, 176-195.
"We specifically examine a range of strategies and campaigns by religious actors, and their non-religious partners, to fight the overwhelming toxicity and neglect of one neighborhood in the city—the Ironbound. We also consider some of the reasons in this particular context for a lack of engagement by religious groups and the difficulties faced by immigrant populations in addressing environmental problems."

Superfund Site: Diamond Alkali Company

Why There is Agent Orange in Newark
RT America news video.
Superfund Site: Diamond Alkali Co., Newark, NJ
In the 1950s and 1960s, the Diamond Alkali Company manufactured agricultural chemicals, including the herbicides used in the defoliant known as “Agent Orange” on Lister Avenue in Newark. A by-product of these manufacturing processes was 2,3,7,8-TCDD (dioxin), an extremely toxic chemical.
1977 Letter from the Medical Director of the Diamond Shamrock Corporation to the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health
Information on Diamond Shamrock's experience with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
Assessment of Potential Sources of Release of Dioxin to the Environment From Reported Manufacturing Operations and Activities at the Diamond Shamrock Facility, 80 Lister Avenue, Newark, New Jersey
Prepared for Defense Steering Committee (Diamond Shamrock v. Aetna, et al), May 29, 1987.
“Reconstruction of Historical 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin Discharges from a Former Pesticide Manufacturing Plant to the Lower Passaic River"
Robert Parette, David J. Velinsky, and Wendy N. Pearson. Chemosphere (Oxford) 212, December 2018, pp. 1125-1132. Rutgers-restricted Access
Health Consultation: Diamond Alkali Company
Prepared by the New Jersey Department of Health, Environmental Health Service, August 21, 1996.
Fourth Five-Year Review Report for the Diamond Alkali Site 2016

Environmental Health

Air Pollution
Lead Poisoning
Newark Bay
Passaic River

Air Pollution

Air Pollution, Meteorology and Public Health in New Jersey: Case Studies of Newark and the Meadowlands
Dawn Roberts-Semple. Thesis (Ph.D). Newark, N.J., Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 2012.
"This dissertation adapts an integrated approach to improve understanding about the role of meteorological factors on air pollution concentrations and their cumulative effects on public health in Newark and the Meadowlands, New Jersey."
Environmental Justice Education and Atmospheric Particulate Analysis in Urban Environmental Health Policy Development: Indoor Airborne Particulate Concentrations in Preschools of Asthmatic Children in Newark.
Rita L. Thornton. Thesis (Ph.D), Rutgers University - Newark, and the New Jersey Institute of Technology, 2006.
"This study analyzes the community locations and evaluates literature and other available air pollution data for the target communities in the city of Newark. The study focuses on asthma or reative airway diseases as a target health risk. It also performs data collection on particulate pollutants and levels of trace metals in particulate matter in target communities and schools of preschool children in two of the five Wards of Newark." Available?
Outdoor Aeroallergens, Air Pollutants, and Daily Asthma Hospitalization in Two Urban Areas of New Jersey Rutgers-restricted access
Stella Manchun Tsai. Ph.D. Thesis, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 2007.
Evaluates the association between ambient aeroallergen and air pollutant concentrations and asthma hospitalization rates in Camden and in Elizabeth/Newark from 1999 to 2002. Available?
"Manganese Pollution in the City Environment and its Relationship to Traffic Density," Rutgers-restricted access
Morris M. Joselow American Journal of Public Health 68(6), June 1978, 557-560.
"Street soils from various locations...[in Newark] were analyzed for manganese and lead...Highly significant inverse relationships were found between the concentrations of both contaminants and distance from major traffic arteries."
"Benzene, Artificial Leather and Aplastic Anemia: Newark, 1916-1928,"
William D. Sharpe. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 69(1), January-February 1993, 47-60.

Lead Poisoning

Childhood Lead Poisoning: Newark, New Jersey's Preventable Disease: An Exploratory Study
Gwendolyn G. Grant. (Masters Thesis) Newark State College, 1971. Rutgers-restricted Access
"Lead Poisoning in Newark: The Situation Prior to a Case Finding and Intervention Program,"
Ann A. Browder. Journal of the Medical Society of New Jersey 69(2), February 1972, 101-6.
"Assessment of lead poisoning in Newark during the 15 months January 1, 1969 through March 31, 1970 showed that the number of children screened, treated, and followed were far below the number projected at risk of lead poisoning." Available?
"Lead Poisoning: More Than a Medical Problem,"Rutgers-restricted access
D. Jean Schneider and Marvin A. Lavenhar. American Journal of Public Health 76(3), March 1986, 242-244.
Lead paint used in pre-1950 housing is a major source of lead poisoning in children. In 1980 66 percent of Newark's housing stock predated 1950. An examination of the medical records of 236 Newark children treated for lead poisoning between 1977 and 1980 found that the number of cases began to rise after 1976, when a decrease in federal funding resulted in cutbacks in prevention and screening programs.
"Successful Ways to Increase Retention in a Longitudinal Study of Lead-Exposed Children," Rutgers-restricted access
Susan Adubato et. al. Health & Social Work 28(4), November 2003, 312-315.
Looks at the factors that contributed to a 97 percent retention rate over a five-year period in the Treatment of Lead-Exposed Children (TLC) study in Newark.
Part 2: Housing Crisis Causes Health Crisis: Lead Prevention in Newark Proves Almost Impossible.
Judy Peet and Russell Ben-Ali. November 5, 2001.
Part of a Newark Star-Ledger series on lead poisoning.
Newark Sues Lead Pigment Industry: Charges Lead Manufacturers with Knowingly Poisoning Newark Children
December 4, 2001 Press Release
City of Newark v. Lead Industries Association December 2001.
Childhood Lead Poisoning in New Jersey Annual Reports
Essex county continues to have the largest number and percentage of children with elevated blood lead results in the state. The city of Newark has the highest number of children with elevated blood levels.
Childhood Lead Poisoning in New Jersey Annual Report
New Jersey. Department of Health and Senior Services, 19??. Available?

Newark Bay

"Wartime Mobilization and the Newark Bay Home Front Environment: A Case Study Revealing Opportunity for Federal Leadership in Resolving Mega Site Problems" Rutgers-restricted access
Michael Reis. Environmental Claims Journal 18(4), December 2006, pp. 293-320.
Effect of Changes in Sediment and Contaminant Loads in Newark Bay on Future Disposal of Dredged Sediments Rutgers-restricted access
Thomas H. Wakeman. D.E.S. Thesis, Columbia University, 2006. Available?
"Sources of Pollution and Sediment Contamination in Newark Bay, New Jersey," Rutgers-restricted access
David W. Crawford, Nancy L. Bonnevie, and Richard J. Wenning. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 30, February 1995, 85-100.
Reviews the literature and data on chemicals and water quality stressors throughout the Newark Bay estuary. Looks at the historical and current sources of pollution.
"Fishing in Urban New Jersey: Ethnicity Affects Information Sources, Perception, and Compliance," Rutgers-restricted access
Joanna Burger, Risk Analysis 19(2), April 1999, 217-229
"Examines fishing behavior, sources of information, perceptions, and compliance with fishing advisories as a function of ethnicity for people fishing in the NewarkBay Complex."
"Consumption Patterns and Risk Assessment of Crab Consumers From the Newark Bay Complex, New Jersey, USA"
Kerry Kirk Pflugh et al. The Science of the Total Environment 409 (21), 2011, pp. 4536-4544. Rutgers-restricted Access
Concentration and Loads of Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in Tributaries to Newark and Raritan Bays, New Jersey.
Timothy P. Wilson and Jennifer L. Bonin. Prepared for the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan for NY-NJ Harbor Ambient Monitoring of Loading to Major Tributaries at Head-of-Tide Study I-C. Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5059. Reston, Virginia, U.S. Geological Survey, 2007.
"Geochemical and Hydrological Study of Coastal Groundwater Discharging to an Urban Estuary in Northern New Jersey."
Hun Bok Jung. Environmental Earth Sciences 79(6) March, 2020.
"In summer 2017 and 2018, groundwater (n = 39) and sediment (n = 13) samples were collected at depths of 20–175 cm from a sandy coastal aquifer in addition to surface water samples (n = 10) along the Newark Bay, a highly urbanized estuary."

Passaic River

A Common Tragedy: History of an Urban River.
Timothy J. Iannuzzi et. al. Amherst, Mass., Amherst Scientific Publishers, 2002. Available?
An American River: From Paradise to Superfund; Afloat on New Jersey's Passaic
Mary Bruno. Vashon, Washington, DeWitt Press, 2012. Available?
Passaic River Litigation: Reference and Studies: Investigations
Links to a large number of enviromental reports relating to the Passaic River.
Characterization and Assessment of Contaminated Sediments in Lower Passaic River, New Jersey Rutgers-restricted access
Victor Udoka Onwueme. Thesis (D.Env.M.), Montclair State University, 2008. Available?
Effect of water quality model uncertainty on the Passaic total maximum daily load and water quality trading program for total phosphorus.
Josef Sy Kardos. Thesis (Ph.D.), Rutgers University, 2009.
Diversity of Biodegradative Gene Populations in Aquatic Sediments Examined by Gene-targeted Metagenomics
Elyse Anne Rodgers-Vieira. Thesis (Ph.D), Rutgers The State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 2012.
"The Passaic River in Newark, New Jersey has a long history of industrial pollution making it an ideal site to study monooxygenase diversity. 16S rRNA and alkane monooxgyenase gene populations were analyzed by pyrosequencing to determine if sampling location on the river influenced the microbial community and if triplicate enrichments yield comparable results...Sediments from rivers and streams in Central Asia were compared to determine if novel alkane monooxygenase families could be found in a largely unstudied geographic region." Available?
"The Pollution Problem of the Passaic River,"
Daniel Jacobson. Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society 76(3), July 1958, 186-198.
Traces the gradual pollution of Newark's water supply in the 19th century. Available?
"The Passaic Valley Trunk Sewer,"
Stuart Galishoff. New Jersey History 88(4), Winter 1970, 197-214. Reprinted in Safeguarding the Public Health: Newark, 1895-1918. Westport, Conn., 1975, pp. 54-67.
The Passaic river, which for many years served both as a water supply and major recreational site for Newark and the surrounding area, by the latter part of the 19th century had been polluted to the point that it "had the characteristics of an open sewer." Traces efforts to mitigate the pollution, culminiating in the opening of the Passaic Valley Trunk Sewer in 1924. Available?


Rat Fields, Neighborhood Sanitation and Rat Complaints in Newark, New Jersey
Harry L. Margulis. Geographical Review 67(2), April 1977, pp. 221-231. Rutgers-restricted Access
Neighborhood Sanitation Rat Complaints and Rat Control on the Near West Side, Newark, New Jersey and North Hill, Akron, Ohio
Harry L. Margulis. Journal of Environmental Health 41(1), July/August 1978, pp. 18-25. Available?
"Drainage, Disease, Comfort, and Class: A History of Newark's Sewers,"
Stuart Galishoff.  Societas 6(2), 1976, 121-138. Available?
The History of the Newark Sewer System    [Illustrations].
Glenn R. Modica. A Project of the City of Newark, Department of Water and Sewer Utilities, Newark, New Jersey. Cranbury, N.J., Richard Grubb & Associates, Inc., 2001. Available?

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