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Bioterrorism: Home



BioTerrorism BioDefense Resources

BioTerrorism Agents from The CDC

Subject Guide

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Stephen Modica
He/ Him
Subjects: Physical Therapy

BioDefense Plans & Programs




Chemical & Biological Agents

Biooligical & Chemical Agents


Consumer Health Information Resources

Consumer health





JCAHO Standards Revisions for 2001, Emergency Management
JCAHO Standards Revisions for 2000, Implementing Emergency Drills (Hospitals)

Food Safety

Food Safety


Agricultural Terrorism Readings
(Center for State Homeland Security (CSHS))
This page contains links to informative news items.

Bioterrorism Act of 2002
(Food & Drug Administration (FDA))
This site contains the complete text, in both HTML and PDF formats, of the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (the Bioterrorism Act), which was signed into law on June 12, 2002.  Title III concerns Safety of Food and Drug Supply; links to it and specific sections are located on the main page.

Businesses & Partners
(United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food Safety & Inspection Service)
This site provides information on compliance assistance, cooperative agreements, guidance for state/local agencies, regulations/directives/notices, and much more.

CARVER+ Shock Software Tool
(U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA))
CARVER+Shock is an “offensive targeting prioritization tool adapted from the military for use in the food industry.  The tool can be used to assess vulnerabilities within a system or infrastructure to an attack.”

Counter-Terrorism Training and Resources for Law Enforcement
Although specifically aimed at law enforcement professionals, this site provides links to many government resources on food terrorism, defense, and efforts to protect the U.S. food supply.

(U.S. Food and Drug Administration)
This page contains links to a variety of topics, including a section on food safety for both humans and animals.

Countering Bioterrorism and Other Threats to the Food Supply
This Web site serves as “the gateway to Government Food Safety Information.”  It provides links to a broad array of federal, state, and international sites about food safety and bioterrorism.

Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources
(Department of Homeland Security)
View seventeen (17) sector-specific plans, including those for Food/Agriculture and for Water.

DHS’ Roles in Food in Defense and Critical Infrastructure
(Department of Homeland Security)
This report examines actions taken by DHS in support of food defense.

Emergency Preparedness and Response
(Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA)
This page within the APHIS Web site details how this agency functions during an emergency situation.  Contact information is provided, as are links to specific documentation.

FAZD Center
(National Center for Foreign Animal and Zoonotic Disease Defense (FAZD), Texas A&M University (TAMU))
The mission of the FAZD Center is to protect the United States “from exotic and engineered animal diseases that threaten public health and economic stability.”  It is specifically charged with creating “products that defend the U.S. from the intentional use of animal-borne diseases to cause catastrophic harm.”  Users will find links to Web portals, publications, news, and White Papers on related topics.  The lead organization is Texas A&M University working with state and national partners.

FDA Industry Systems Help Desk
(U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA))
This site and its help desk staff are available to answer both technical and computer-related questions about the Prior Notice System Interface (Web site) and general questions on registration of food facilities.  Contact information and links to forms are provided.

FERN:  Food Emergency Response Network
The Food Emergency Response Network “integrates the nation’s food-testing laboratories at the local, state, and federal levels into a network that is able to respond to emergencies involving biological, chemical, or radiological contamination of food.”  It is a joint project of the CDC, FDA, and the USDA.  Most of the site requires a login but there are pages intended for the public.

Food and Agriculture ISAC
(Food Marketing Institute)
ISAC is the Information Sharing and Analysis Center, a partnership of food industry associations, which is coordinated by the Food Marketing Institute.  There is a large section on the site devoted to food safety & defense, including information on recalls and regulatory links, as well as food safety training and conferences.

Food Defense Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Definitions
(U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA))
This is a handy chart, complete with embedded links, which can help to decipher fed-speak and its reliance on acronyms, initialisms, and abbreviations.
See also the “Food Defense Terms and Abbreviations” page, with links to specific Web sites at:

Food Defense and Emergency Response
(USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service)
This resource is divided into broad subcategories, such as surveillance, response, preparation, & prevention, and links to a variety of documents and other resources.

Food Defense and Terrorism
(U.S. Food & Drug Administration)
This site contains links to information on food safety legislation, as well as basic information on food dense programs, consumer information, and training materials.

FoodNet – Foodbrone Diseases Active Surveillance Network
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC))
This is the Web site for “the principle foodborne disease component of the CDC’s Emerging Infections Program (EIP).”  It is a collaborative project of the USDA, CDC, FDA, and ten EIP sites noted on the site.  It contains information about surveillance, reports, studies, conferences, publications, and references and resources.

Food Protection
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC))
This site provides links to both CDC and non-CDC electronic documents which provide information on food safety practices, including threats through terrorism.

Food Protection Education Database, FPEdb
(National Center for Food Protection and Defense)
This is a keyword-searchable database that provides users with links to educational resources.
see also the Center’s home page at

Food Safety
(Lawson Terrorism Information Center, Oklahoma)
This site contains links from a bibliography of items which focus on food safety and federal regulations.  Each item contains a descriptive abstract plus a link to the full-text article, as well as searchable subject descriptors (useful for re-running a search to locate related information.)

Food Safety Information Center (FSIC)
(U.S. National Agriculture Library (NAL))
The goal of this Web site is “to provide food safety information to educators, industry, researchers, and the general public.”  It provides information on emergency preparedness and management.

Food Safety Threats
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC)
Provides links to specific organisms/agents and diseases.

(National Center for Food Protection and Defense)
FoodShield is a “Web-based platform designed to create community between the various laboratories and regulatory agencies that make up our nation’s food and agricultural sectors.  Through secure, integrated resources such as detailed agency profiles, departments of agriculture and health as well as laboratories have the ability to communicate and coordinate with their peers in other states.”  It is organized into broad tabs, such as recalls, contacts, education, events, associations, and resources.

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point
U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
Information on hazards and control guides for seafood, juice, dairy, and other land foods.

Initial Assessment of Food System Biosecurity Threats
(CIDRAP – Center for Infectious Disease Research & Policy, University of Minnesota)
This site has useful information on planning for detection and response; discovery of abnormal physical characteristics in a food item, unusual illnesses among employees or consumers, and much more, all related to our food system.

National Select Agent Registry
The National Select Agent Registry Program “oversees the activities of possession of biological agents and toxins that have the potential to pose a severe threat to public, animal or plant health, or to animal or plant products.”  Users will be able to access a variety of information resources, as well as use electronic application/form packages.

Protecting the Food Supply: FDA Actions on New Bioterrorism Legislation
(U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA))
Find details on various rules and regulations, along with a variety of related quick links.

Terrorism and All-Hazards Preparedness E-Library and Resource Center
(Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR))
This site presents brief annotations and links to e-resources which deal with a variety of hazardous situations, including threats to food and water safety and agro-terrorism.

Terrorist Threats to Food
(World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
This is an electronic version of a document prepared at a joint meeting of these two organizations.  It outlines food safety regulations and the development of programs in support of protection against food sabotage.

Terrorist Threats to Food – Guidelines for Establishing and Strengthening Prevention and Response Systems
(World Health Organization)
Contains an executive summary of the document, plus a link to a printable copy of the full text.

“Times Topics”
(The New York Times)
The New York Times oublishes a section called “Times Topics.”  These are located in a keyword-searchable index.  Users should try “food contamination and poisoning,” along with “terrorism,” “biological and chemical warfare,” along with more general medicine and health topics.  A “News Tracker” service is available to registrants and sends e-mail notices and RSS feeds on relevant issues. Gateway to Government Food Safety Information
This Web site presents information in broad categories, such as consumer advice, foodborne pathogens, industry assistance, and national food safety programs.  It also contains videos and information in specific languages.

From The Literature

From The Literature


Local Resources

Local Resources


Department of Health & Senior Services
Public Health & Environment Laboratory

The NJ Public Health & Environmental Laboratory, in order to reduce Administrative costs, has instituted a prepayment purchasing system for Laboratory services.  Prepayment stamps must be purchased in advance and affixed to your laboratory request form, with the exception of Newborn Screening for Inborn Errors of Metabolism. Inborn Errors of Metabolism (IEM) Testing requires a special specimen collection form (IEM 1) that must be purchased in advance.  Both the prepayment stamps available in $25, $10, $5, $3, $2 and $1 denominations (use Lab-38 order form), and the special IEM 1 forms (use IEM 15 order form) are available at:

New Jersey State Department of Health
Public Health & Environmental Laboratories
CN 361 Trenton, NJ 08625-0361 609-292-5605

Make check or money order payable to the New Jersey State Department of Health.

NJ PIES (NJ Poison Information & Education System)

Mega Sites






Skin Infections and Health
(Washington State Department of Health)  Basic information available in both English and Spanish on MRSA for both clinicians and consumers.

Information for Consumers

  • Fact Sheet for Patients:  Antibiotic-resistant "Staph" Skin Infections
    (Los Angeles County Public Health Department)  Provides sound information in a well-organized and complete manner.
  • Living with MRSA
    (Los Angeles County Public Health Department)  This 20 page document provides a wealth of very specific information for patients.[1].pdf
  • Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
    (Johns Hopkins Medicine)  Also available in a PDF format, this resource is designed to answer common questions asked by patients.
  • MRSA Infection
    (Mayo Clinic)  Written by the Mayo Clinic staff, this site presents general information then zeros in on specifics, such as treatment options, causes, signs and symptoms.  It has a handy toolbar which allows users to view information in a larger font, as well as to send it via e-mail or to print it.
  • MRSA Infection
    (  Intended mainly for consumers, this resource was written by a physician.  The main information is written as an FAQ - it first poses common questions, then supplies answers in a factual, concise manner.  The site also contains graphics as well as information on medications commonly used to treat MRSA.
  • MRSA Infection - MEDLINEplus Encyclopedia
    (National Library of Medicine)  Information provided in MEDLINEplus follows a specific formula; it presents definitions, alternative names for diseases or conditions, treatment options, complications, outcomes.  It is written in an easy-to-understand manner and the page is simple to navigate.
  • MRSA Infections
    (  Written for parents of children by pediatricians, this site presents information in a concise question-and-answer format.  Links are provided to supplementary or related information.
  • Questions & Answers: Staph/MRSA Skin Infections
    (Los Angeles County Public Health Department)  Colorful one page FAQ-style information.
  • Staph Infection/MRSA
    (Hardin MD)  Created by librarians at the Hardin Library of the Health Sciences, this site provides links to a variety of resources on the World Wide Web.
  • Staph Wound Infections and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    (Lab Tests Online)  This public resource of information on laboratory tests presents an overview of MRSA and staph infections and describes lab tests used to confirm the diagnosis.  Information here is written at a slightly higher level of reading comprehension and uses some technical terminology, which is clearly defined for the reader.
  • Superbug Staph Spread in Community
    (  See also's information on MRSA Infection listed above.  This information focuses on community-related MRSA.
  • Understanding MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
    (WebMD)  This site is packed full of information in a variety of formats - basic overview information, questions answered by experts, short video clips, quizzes.  The screen is "busy" but worth taking the extra minute to decipher to find the goodies!  Icons located at the top of the page allow the use to customize font size.
  • What is Staphylococcus aureus (staph)?
    (HealthyNJ)  This site, created by librarians at the University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ) contains a good overview of the topic, as well as links to some of the best informational sites for consumers.  It also contains New Jersey-specific information.

 Information for Healthcare Workers/Clinicians

  • Antimicrobial Resistance
    (State of New Jersey, Department of Health and Senior Services)  This site contains links to two documents; one discusses MRSA in schools and the prevention of its spread.  The other is a lengthy document, Strategic Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance in New Jersey.  The site also contains links to educational materials, and FAQ, and information for health professionals.
  • Antimicrobial Resistance:  Old Bugs, New Threats, and the Public Health Response
    (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Public Health Grand Rounds)  An archived Webcast, complete with handouts, on MRSA.
  • Canadian Recommendations for Reducing the Spread of CAMRSA
    (Canadian Medical Association Journal)  Here is a link to a PDF document containing Canadian recommendations for prevention/control of the spread of community-acquired MRSA.
  • Community-associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    (Dr. Rachel Gorwitz, CDC)  This site contains fifteen (15) pages of PowerPoint slides that represent a training class conducted on MRSA by a staff physician at the CDC.  They contain data and statistics, as well as a basic overview.
  • Fact Sheet for Healthcare Providers:  Community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infections
    (Los Angeles County Public Health Department)  This three page document provides a basic overview, as well as a focus on safety precautions.
  • Interim Guidelines for Evaluation & Management of Community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in Outpatient Settings
    (University of Washington and Infectious Diseases Society of Washington)  A fourteen (14) page document with basic guideline information.
  • Los Angeles County Department of Public Health Guidelines for Reducing the Spread of Staph/CAMRSA in Non-Healthcare Settings
    (Public Health, County of Los Angeles)  Guidelines used by Los Angeles (California) County.
  • Management of Multidrug Resistant Organisms in Healthcare Settings, 2006
    (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)  This 70+ page document provides a comprehensive overview for management of MRSA-like diseases.
  • Minimizing the Impact of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Community
    (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)  Contains a summary from a 2004 conference, with links to related references.
  • MMWR, Antimicrobial Spectrum and Characteristics of Hand-Hygiene Antiseptic Agents
    (Centers for Disease Prevention and Control)  Provides information on antibiotic properties of hand washing agents.
  • Overview of Healthcare-associated MRSA
    (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)  The CDC presents an overview of healthcare-related MRSA that also contains links to guidelines, prevention & control, data & statistics.  In addition, there is a link to community-acquired MRSA.
  • "Staph" or Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) Information
    (Public Health, County of Los Angeles)  Provides users with a brief overview of MRSA, then gives a list of links to relevant sites; these are broken down by subtopics.
  • Strategies for Clinical Management of MRSA in the Community
    (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)  Provides links to important management guidelines, which are available as downloadable PDF documents.
  • This is MRSA
    (County of Los Angeles, Department of Public Services)  This site comes with a Viewer Discretion Advised warning for its collection of digital photos of MRSA.  The quality of the photos is comparable to those found in many dermatology texts.

Pandemic Flu/H1N1

Pandemic Flu/H1n!


  • AI Digest
    Office of the Director of National Intelligence (then sign up; once logged in, open another tab to and search for “AI Digest” and click follow.
    All information here is from open source content and is not an evaluated intelligence product. There is also an RSS feed at and a Web site at
  • CDC Resources for Pandemic Flu
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
    This site contains links to software for tracking flu outbreaks, work loss, plus preparedness tools for professionals and links to more specific flu topics.
  • Enviro-Health Links (2009 H1N1 Swine Flu)
    National Library of Medicine, Specialized Information Services
    This provides a comprehensive resource for health professionals on Federal Response, International Resources, Genetic Sequence Information, PubMed Searches, Veterinary Resources, and information in Spanish.
  • Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR)
    World Health Organization
    This page provides information on influenza pandemics.
  • Get Ready
    American Public Health Administration
    Read basic information about influenza and flu pandemics, including a free chapter from the APHA’s Control of Communicable Diseases Manual on identification and transmission of influenza. This page contains other valuable links to resources about school closing, quarantine, etc.
  • H1N1 Flu
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
    Find links to the latest information, plus facts intended for health professionals, consumers, and other groups.
  • H1N1 Influenza Information
    State of New Jersey, Department of Health & Senior Services
    Information on this site is divided by interest groups: schools, public, health professionals. Some information is presented in Spanish. Included is information about surveillance and testing, hygiene, and care for those with the flu.
  • HealthyNJ
    UMDNJ – University Libraries
    Find a link to new information for health consumers on the main page of this site.
  • HHS Pandemic Influenza Plan
    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
    This plan serves as a blueprint for national, state, and local planning & response to an influenza pandemic. The entire plan may be downloaded as a PDF document, or by specific section.
  • HHS Widgets
    Get widgets for English and Spanish language Swine flu information from both Health & Human Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC).
  • Influezna A (H1N1) also known as Swine Flu
    University of Iowa Libraries
    Links to a broad range of news and resources, including information in Spanish.
  • Influenza A (H1N1) Swine Influenza
    Pan American Health Organization (PAHO);=blogcategory&id;=805&Itemid;=569 A series of links to online documents in both English and Spanish covering topics such as surveillance, laboratory & virology guidelines, clinical management & infection control, plus updates and frequently asked questions.
  • Information on the H1N1 (SO) Flu
    New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene
    A good source of current information, available in English and Spanish, it also offers some information in up to fourteen (14) different languages.
  • Latest Information on Swine Flu
    This site presents information about disease outbreaks in a visual format. Supporting information is available in English, French, and Spanish, among other languages.
  • National Strategy for Pandemic Flu
    U.S. Department of Homeland Security
    Provides users with a link to the critical infrastructure guide, available in PDF format.
  • New Jersey Statewide Pandemic Influenza Plan
    State of New Jersey, Department of Health & Senior Services
    This detailed plan is divided into sections that are available as separate PDF documents. It also provides links to information about Seasonal Flu, Avian Flu, and Pandemic Flu.
    One-stop access to information about avian, swine, and pandemic flu from the U.S. government, it includes information for specific groups (families, counties) as well as availability of RSS feeds and e-mail alerts for quick delivery of the latest news.
  • Pandemic Flu
    American College Health Association
    Link to a PDF document on “Guidelines for Pandemic Planning.”
  • Pandemic Flu
    American Red Cross
    This page provides helpful definitions and concise information about the topic. It provides sections on overview, plan, action, resources, etc. The Resources section provides PDF documents on a variety of topics in both English and Spanish.
  • Pandemic Flu: A Planning Guide for Educators
    U.S. Department of Education
    This identifies issues for educators to consider in the event of pandemic flu, seasonal flu, and what can be done to limit the spread of the disease.
  • Pandemic Flu: What to do! What to do!
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIEHS Kids Pages
    Information about pandemic flu, written for children, this page contains factual information, checklists, links to sample emergency contact sheets, and a resources section of other family-friendly information.
  • Pandemic Influenza: A Guide to Recent Institute of Medicine Studies and Workshops
    Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (IOM) The IOM has gathered public policy experts together to consider pandemic influenza and other infectious diseases outbreaks. Their related documents are gathered here for ease of use.
  • Pandemic Influenza: Best Practices and Model Protocols
    U.S. Fire Administration
    This is a 37 page PDF document which is the synopsis of a three-day forum for emergency medical services (EMS), fire, emergency management, and public works participants, suggesting best practice and protocols.
  • Pandemic Influenza Preparedness & Response Guidance for Healthcare Workers and Healthcare Employers
    Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA)
    A document of guidelines for the healthcare industry, available in PDF format.
  • Social Media Tools for Consumers and Partners
    Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
    Get widgets, find Twitter sites, buttons, video broadcasts, e-cards, and other social networking places of information about health topics, such as the flu.The Swine flu information appears at the top of the page.
  • Swine Flu
    American Academy of Pediatrics
    This site presents a concise overview of known information and provides links to useful articles/pamphlets on related topics, such as information for travelers and for childcare programs/schools.
  • Swine Flu
    DynaMed, EBSCOhost
    DynaMed is a point-of-care, subscription-based product. They are making their clinical information on the Swine flu available free of charge to all users. It includes screening, history, treatment, and patient information, as well as disease summaries.
  • Swine Flu
    MEDLINEplus, National Library of Medicine
    This is a brief description of H1N1 flu designed for consumers; it contains a brief list of precautions to decrease the likelihood of catching the flu. See also Gripe Porcina at for the Spanish-language version of the same content.
  • Swine Influenza Frequently Asked Questions
    World Health Organization
    A FAQ by the WHO. Also available in Spanish at
  • World Health Organization
    This links to the home page of the World Health Organization. Users may come here to see the latest updates and to link to related information.




Radiological Agents


Radiation Disasters: Preparedness & Response for Radiology
(American College of Radiology)
This site contains information arranged in a variety of categories: Physician Preparedness, Hospital Preparedness, State Resources, etc.

·  Radiation Emergencies
Contains background information, information for the public, information for first responders, as well as information for clinicians and hospitals.

·  Radiological Terrorism Rapid Response Card
(New York State Department of Health)
This guide provides Emergency Medical Services (EMS) staff and other health care providers with basic information to manage patients contaminated by radiological materials or patients who have received large doses of radiation from an external source.

Respirator Fit Testing

Respirator Fit Testing




Training Programs






Veterniary Medicine





Anthrax: a continuing concern in the era of bioterrorism.
Riedel S.
roc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2005 Jul; 18(3): 234-243.;=pdf&artid;=1200731

A silent bomb: The risk of anthrax as a weapon of mass destruction.
Webb GF.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Apr 15; 100(8): 4355-4356. published online before print April 7, 2003;=pdf&artid;=153555

Novel Sample Preparation Method for Safe and Rapid Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spores in Environmental Powders and Nasal Swabs.
Luna VA, King D, Davis C, Rycerz T, Ewert M, Cannons A, Amuso P, Cattani J. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Mar; 41(3): 1252-1255.;=pdf&artid;=150283

Modeling the optimum duration of antibiotic prophylaxis in an anthrax outbreak.
Brookmeyer R, Johnson E, Bollinger R.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 19; 100(17): 10129-10132. published online before print July 30, 2003 PMCID: 187789;=pdf&artid;=187789

Anthrax vaccine design: strategies to achieve comprehensive protection against spore, bacillus, and toxin.
Wang JY, Roehrl MH.
Med Immunol. 2005; 4: 4. published online before print March 24, 2005;=pdf&artid;=1079933

Is In Vitro Antibiotic Combination More Effective than Single-Drug Therapy against Anthrax?
Athamna A, Athamna M, Nura A, Shlyakov E, Bast DJ, Farrell D, Rubinstein E.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Apr; 49(4): 1323-1325.;=pdf&artid;=1068588

Emergency response to an anthrax attack.
Wein LM, Craft DL, Kaplan EH.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Apr 1; 100(7): 4346-4351. published online before print March 21, 2003;=pdf&artid;=153095;=153095#supplementary-material-sec

In Vivo–produced Anthrax Toxin.
Fish DC, Lincoln RE.
J Bacteriol. 1968 Mar; 95(3): 919-924.;=pdf&artid;=252110

The host response to anthrax lethal toxin: unexpected observations.
Prince AS.
J Clin Invest. 2003 Sep 1; 112(5): 656-658.;=pdf&artid;=182215

Initiating informatics and GIS support for a field investigation of Bioterrorism: The New Jersey anthrax experience.
Zubieta JC, Skinner R, Dean AG.
Int J Health Geogr. 2003; 2: 8. published online before print November 16, 2003;=pdf&artid;=293473

Albrink WS. Bacteriol Rev. 1961 Sep; 25(3): 268-273.;=pdf&artid;=441103

Burdon KL.
J Bacteriol. 1956 Jan; 71(1): 25-42.;=pdf&artid;=357732

Industrial inhalation Anthrax.
Brachman PS, Kaufman AF, Dalldorf FG.
Bacteriol Rev. 1966 Sep; 30(3): 646-659.;=pdf&artid;=378258

Back to Top

Bioterrorism/Biological Warfare

Bioterrorism: Implications for the Clinical Microbiologist.
Klietmann WF, Ruoff KL.
Clin Microbiol Rev. 2001 Apr; 14(2): 364-381.;=pdf&artid;=88979

Biocrimes, Microbial Forensics, and the Physician.
Schutzer SE, Budowle B, Atlas RM.
PLoS Med. 2005 Dec; 2(12): e337. published online before print September 27, 2005;=pdf&artid;=1236212

Role of the Hospital-Based Microbiology Laboratory in Preparation for and Response to a
Bioterrorism Event.
Snyder JW.
J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Jan; 41(1): 1-4.;=pdf&artid;=149646

Surge Capacity for Response to Bioterrorism in Hospital Clinical Microbiology Laboratories.
Shapiro DS.
J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Dec; 41(12): 5372-5376.;=pdf&artid;=308964

Learning about bioterrorism and chemical warfare: Medical students explore key threats.
[No authors listed]
West J Med. 2002 Jan; 176(1): 58-59.;=pdf&artid;=1071656

Why global health matters to US primary care physicians.
Peabody JW, Feachem RG.
West J Med. 2001 Sep; 175(3): 153-154.;=pdf&artid;=1071523

Near patient microbiological tests.
Borriello SP.
BMJ. 1999 Jul 31; 319(7205): 298-301.;=pdf&artid;=1126935

Biological warfare and bioterrorism: a historical review.
Riedel S.
Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2004 Oct; 17(4): 400-406.;=pdf&artid;=1200679

The problem of biological weapons.
Cole LA.
J Clin Invest. 2005 May 2; 115(5): 1110.;=pdf&artid;=1087188

Bacterial toxins: a table of lethal amounts.
Gill DM.
Microbiol Rev. 1982 Mar; 46(1): 86-94.;=pdf&artid;=373212

The significance of chemical and biological warfare for the people.
Bennett IL Jr.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1970 Jan; 65(1): 271-279.;=pdf&artid;=286221

Preparing for bioterrorism.
OReilly M.
CMAJ. 2002 May 28; 166(11): 1455.;=111239

The Informatics Response in Disaster, Terrorism, and War.
Teich JM, Wagner MM, Mackenzie CF, Schafer BG.
J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2002; 9(2): 97-104.;=pdf&artid;=344563

Charatan F.
BMJ. 1999 Oct 16; 319(7216): 1077.;=pdf&artid;=1116867

Deadly Alliances: Death, Disease, and the Global Politics of Public Health.
Gandy M.
PLoS Med. 2005 Jan; 2(1): e4. published online before print January 25, 2005;=pdf&artid;=545197

Bioterrorism: Guidelines for Medical and Public Health Management.
Reacher M.
BMJ. 2003 Mar 22; 326(7390): 665.;=1125568

AMIA Recommendations for National Health Threat Surveillance and Response.
Brennan PF.
J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2002; 9(2): 204-206.;=pdf&artid;=344578

The World Trade Center Attack: Is critical care prepared for terrorism?
Kvetan V.
Crit Care. 2001; 5(6): 321-322. published online before print November 6, 2001;=pdf&artid;=137380

Biological warfare and bioterrorism.
Beeching NJ, Dance DA, Miller AR, Spencer RC.
BMJ. 2002 Feb 9; 324(7333): 336-339.;=pdf&artid;=1122269;=1122269#supplementary-material-sec

Weapons of mass destruction—threats and responses.
Gosden C, Gardener D.
BMJ. 2005 Aug 13; 331(7513): 397-400.;=1184257

Biological warfare.
Suchard J.
West J Med. 1999 Apr; 170(4): 243.;=pdf&artid;=1305563

Appropriate responses to bioterrorist threats : The health services will play a vital role in protection against covert releases.
Lightfoot N, Wale M, Spencer R, Nicoll A.
BMJ. 2001 Oct 20; 323(7318): 877-878.;=pdf&artid;=1121424

Safe Food: Bacteria, biotechnology, and bioterrorism.
O’Doherty Jensen K.
J Clin Invest. 2004 Mar 15; 113(6): 787.;=pdf&artid;=362128

The problem of biological weapons.
Cole LA.
J Clin Invest. 2005 May 2; 115(5): 1110.;=pdf&artid;=1087188

Response to bioterrorism : Terror weapons are regarded as weapons of mass destruction.
Lim MK.
BMJ. 2002 Feb 9; 324(7333): 362.;=pdf&artid;=1122283

Chlorine Inactivation of Bacterial Bioterrorism Agents.
Rose LJ, Rice EW, Jensen B, Murga R, Peterson A, Donlan RM, Arduino MJ.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005 Jan; 71(1): 566-568.;=pdf&artid;=544226

Biodefense cost and consequence.
Goodman L.
J Clin Invest. 2004 Jul 1; 114(1): 2-3.;=pdf&artid;=437981

Harnessing new science is vital for biodefense and global health.
Alberts B, Fineberg HV.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Aug 3; 101(31): 11177. published online before print July 12, 2004;=pdf&artid;=509179

The growing pains of biodefense.
Birmingham K.
J Clin Invest. 2003 Oct 1; 112(7): 970-971.;=pdf&artid;=198537

Provider and health care system response to a bioterrorist attack.
Malone JD.
Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2001 Jul; 14(3): 224-230.;=pdf&artid;=1305821

Laboratory Safety Practices Associated with Potential Agents of Biocrime or Bioterrorism.
Sewell DL.
J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Jul; 41(7): 2801-2809.;=pdf&artid;=165388

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Chemical Weapons/Warfare

Psychological implications of chemical and biological weapons : Long term social and psychological effects may be worse than acute ones.
Wessely S, Hyams KC, Bartholomew R. <;=pdf&artid;=1121425

Gas and germ warfare: international legal history and present status.
Bunn G.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1970 Jan; 65(1): 253-260.;=pdf&artid;=286219

Chemical warfare from an ecological perspective.
Lenski RE, Riley MA.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jan 22; 99(2): 556-558.;=pdf&artid;=117343

Chemical warfare agents: toxicology and treatment.
Watson KD.
Med Hist. 1997 Apr; 41(2): 258.;=pdf&artid;=1043932

Chemical weapons.
Evison D, Hinsley D, Rice P.
BMJ. 2002 Feb 9; 324(7333): 332-335.;=pdf&artid;=1122267

The problem of secondary contamination following chemical agent release.
Baker D.
Crit Care. 2005; 9(4): 323-324. published online before print March 22, 2005;=1269430

Chemical Mixtures: Considering the Evolution of Toxicology and Chemical Assessment.
Monosson E.
Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Apr; 113(4): 383-390. published online before print October 21, 2004;=pdf&artid;=1278475

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Dengue Fever

A model of dengue fever.
Derouich M, Boutayeb A, Twizell E.
Biomed Eng Online. 2003; 2: 4. published online before print February 19, 2003;=pdf&artid;=153427

Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever.
Gubler DJ.
Clin Microbiol Rev. 1998 Jul; 11(3): 480-496.;=pdf&artid;=88892

The dengue viruses.
Henchal EA, Putnak JR.
Clin Microbiol Rev. 1990 Oct; 3(4): 376-396.;=pdf&artid;=358169

Current Advances in Dengue Diagnosis.
Shu PY, Huang JH.
Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004 Jul; 11(4): 642-650.;=pdf&artid;=440621

Dengue: defining protective versus pathologic immunity.
Rothman AL.
J Clin Invest. 2004 Apr 1; 113(7): 946-951.;=pdf&artid;=379334

Dengue fever: new paradigms for a changing epidemiology.
Guha-Sapir D, Schimmer B.
Emerg Themes Epidemiol. 2005; 2: 1. published online before print March 2, 2005;=pdf&artid;=555563

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Food Safety

The Role of internists during epidemics, outbreaks, and bioterrorist attacks.
Lee BY.  J Gen Intern Med. 2007 January; 22(1): 131–136. Published online 2007 January 13.

The color of hamburger: slow steps toward the development of a science-based food safety system in the United States.
Morris JG, Jr.
Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2003; 114: 191–202.

Laboratory safety practices associated with potential agents of biocrime or bioterrorism.
Sewell DL.
J Clin Microbiol. 2003 July; 41(7): 2801–2809.

Benefits of linking public health, animal health, and food safety surveillance.
Mann E.
Can Vet J. 2002 October; 43(10): 796–797.

Bennett JW, Klich M.
Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003 July; 16(3): 497–516.

Implications of the World Trade Center attack for the public health and health care infrastructures.
Klitzman S, Freudenberg N.
Am J Public Health. 2003 March; 93(3): 400–406.

Availability and perceived effectiveness of public health activities in the nation’s most populous communities.
Mays GP, Halverson PK, Baker EL, Stevens R, Vann JJ.
Am J Public Health. 2004 June; 94(6): 1019–1026.

The threat of things biological.
VanderMeer DC.
Environ Health Perspect. 1998 June; 106(6): A280–A282.

Food safety and foodborne disease in 21st century homes.
Scott E.
Can J Infect Dis. 2003 Sep–Oct; 14(5): 277–280.

Making food safety an issue: internationalized food politics and French public health from the 1870s to the present.
Zylberman P.
Med Hist. 2004 January 1; 48(1): 1–28.

Investigation of multistate foodborne disease outbreaks.
Sobel J, Griffin PM, Slutsker L, Swerdlow DL, Tauxe RV.
Public Health Rep. 2002 Jan–Feb; 117(1): 8–19.


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Francisella Tularensis (Tularemia)

STUDIES ON TULAREMIA: II. The Antigenic Properties of Variants of Pasteurella tularensis in Various Hosts.
Downs CM, Moody MD.
J Bacteriol. 1955 Sep; 70(3): 305-313.;=pdf&artid;=357686

STUDIES ON TULAREMIA: I. The Relation Between Certain Pathogenic and Immunogenic Properties of Variants of Pasteurella tularensis.
Moody MD, Downs CM.
J Bacteriol. 1955 Sep; 70(3): 297-304.;=pdf&artid;=357685

Levin W.
Bull Med Libr Assoc. 1940 Oct; 29(1): 17-22.;=pdf&artid;=233540

Francisella tularensis Bacteremia.
Haristoy X, Lozniewski A, Tram C, Simeon D, Bevanger L, Lion C.
J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Jun; 41(6): 2774-2776.;=pdf&artid;=156490

Antibiotic prophylaxis and therapy of airborne tularemia.
Sawyer WD, Dangerfield HG, Hogge AL, Crozier D.
Bacteriol Rev. 1966 Sep; 30(3): 542-550.;=pdf&artid;=378237

Bactericidal Activities of Antibiotics against Intracellular Francisella tularensis.
Maurin M, Mersali NF, Raoult D.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000 Dec; 44(12): 3428-3431.;=pdf&artid;=90216

Ellis J, Oyston PC, Green M, Titball RW.
Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002 Oct; 15(4): 631-646.;=pdf&artid;=126859

STUDIES ON TULAREMIA: III. The Variation of Pasteurella tularensis Grown in the Presence of Normal and Immune Serum from Various Hosts.
Moody MD.
J Bacteriol. 1955 Sep; 70(3): 314-319.;=pdf&artid;=357687

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H1N1 (Swine) Flu/Tamiflu/Pandemic Flu

H1N1 (Swine) Flu

Cases of Swine Influenza in Humans: A Review of the Literature
Kendall P. Myers, Christopher W. Olsen, and Gregory C. Gray
Clin Infect Dis. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2007 September 7.

The Failure of the 1976 Swine Influenza Immunization Program
Sharon L. Begley
Yale J Biol Med. 1977 Nov–Dec; 50(6): 645–656.

Human Case of Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Triple Reassortant Virus Infection, Wisconsin
Alexandra P. Newman, Erik Reisdorf, Jeanne Beinemann, Timothy M. Uyeki, Amanda Balish, Bo Shu, Stephen Lindstrom, Jenna Achenbach, Catherine Smith, and Jeffrey P. Davis
Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 September; 14(9): 1470–1472. doi: 10.3201/eid1409.080305.

An influenza A (H1N1) virus, closely related to swine influenza virus, responsible for a fatal case of human influenza.
D E Wentworth, B L Thompson, X Xu, H L Regnery, A J Cooley, M W McGregor, N J Cox, and V S Hinshaw
J Virol. 1994 April; 68(4): 2051–2058.


Experts question wisdom of stockpiling oseltamivir
Andrew Cole
BMJ. 2005 November 5; 331(7524): 1041.
Supplementary materials:

Health and Drug Alerts: Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) unsafe in infants under 1 year old
Eric Wooltorton
CMAJ. 2004 February 3; 170(3): 336.
Supplementary materials:

Meeting Report: Risk Assessment of Tamiflu Use Under Pandemic Conditions
Andrew C. Singer, Bruce M. Howard, Andrew C. Johnson, Chris J. Knowles, Simon Jackman, Cesare Accinelli, Anna Barra Caracciolo, Ian Bernard, Stephen Bird, Tatiana Boucard, Alistair Boxall, Jayne V. Brian, Elise Cartmell, Chris Chubb, John Churchley, Sandra Costigan, Mark Crane, Michael J. Dempsey, Bob Dorrington, Brian Ellor, Jerker Fick, John Holmes, Tom Hutchinson, Franz Karcher, Samuel L. Kelleher, Peter Marsden, Gerald Noone, Miles A. Nunn, John Oxford, Tony Rachwal, Noel Roberts, Mike Roberts, Maria Ludovica Saccà, Matthew Sanders, Jürg Oliver Straub, Adrian Terry, Dean Thomas, Stephen Toovey, Rodney Townsend, Nikolaos Voulvoulis, and Chris Watts
Environ Health Perspect. 2008 November; 116(11): 1563–1567.

Oseltamivir Is Adequately Absorbed Following Nasogastric Administration to Adult Patients with Severe H5N1 Influenza
Walter R. J. Taylor, Bui Nghia Thinh, Giang Thuc Anh, Peter Horby, Heiman Wertheim, Niklas Lindegardh, Menno D. de Jong, Kasia Stepniewska, Tran Thuy Hanh, Nguyen Duc Hien, Ngo Minh Bien, Ngo Quy Chau, Annette Fox, Nghiem My Ngoc, Martin Crusat, Jeremy J. Farrar, Nicholas J. White, Nguyen Hong Ha, Trinh Thi Lien, Nguyen Vu Trung, Nicholas Day, and Nguyen Gia Binh
PLoS ONE. 2008; 3(10): e3410.

Oseltamivir Prescribing in Pharmacy-Benefits Database, United States, 2004–2005
Justin R. Ortiz, Laurie Kamimoto, Ronald E. Aubert, Jianying Yao, David K. Shay, Joseph S. Bresee, and Robert S. Epstein
Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 August; 14(8): 1280–1283.

Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of Oseltamivir Combined with Probenecid
Mark Holodniy, Scott R. Penzak, Timothy M. Straight, Richard T. Davey, Kelvin K. Lee, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Dennis W. Raisch, Francesca Cunningham, Emil T. Lin, Noemi Olivo, and Lawrence R. Deyton
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 September; 52(9): 3013–3021.

Potential Risks Associated with the Proposed Widespread Use of Tamiflu
Andrew C. Singer, Miles A. Nunn, Ernest A. Gould, and Andrew C. Johnson
Environ Health Perspect. 2007 January; 115(1): 102–106.

A Randomized, Crossover Study to Evaluate the Pharmacokinetics of Amantadine and Oseltamivir Administered Alone and in Combination
Dennis Morrison, Sandip Roy, Craig Rayner, Ahmed Amer, Dan Howard, James R. Smith, and Thomas G. Evans
PLoS ONE. 2007; 2(12): e1305. Published online 2007 December 12.
Supplementary materials:

Reassessing the Risks of Tamiflu Use during a Pandemic to the Lower Colorado River
Andrew C. Singer, Andrew C. Johnson, Paul D. Anderson, and Shane A. Snyder
Environ Health Perspect. 2008 July; 116(7): A285–A286.

Review says oseltamivir and zanamivir should be kept for epidemics of flu
Susan Mayor
BMJ. 2006 January 28; 332(7535): 196.

Stockpiling oseltamivir: What is the number needed to treat with oseltamivir to prevent one flu death?
A Rouse
BMJ. 2005 November 19; 331(7526): 1203.

Tamiflu Swan Song?: Building Resistance to Top Avian Flu Drug
Cynthia Washam
Environ Health Perspect. 2007 January; 115(1): A42.

Widespread Oseltamivir Resistance in Influenza A Viruses (H1N1), South Africa
Terry G. Besselaar, Dhamari Naidoo, Amelia Buys, Vicky Gregory, Jo McAnerney, Jack M. Manamela, Lucille Blumberg, and Barry D. Schoub
Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 November; 14(11): 1809–1810. doi: 10.3201/eid1411.080958.

Pandemic Flu

Antiviral Resistance and the Control of Pandemic Influenza
Marc Lipsitch, Ted Cohen, Megan Murray, and Bruce R Levin
PLoS Med. 2007 January; 4(1): e15.
Supplementary materials:

Being prepared: Preparations for a pandemic of influenza.
Owens SR.
EMBO Rep. 2001 Dec 15; 2(12): 1061-1063.

BREAKING THE CODE: Predicting Where Disease Will Strike.
Lougheed T.
Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Sep; 113(9): A610-A613.

Confined Animal Feeding Operations as Amplifiers of Influenza
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2007 October 26.

Current and future antiviral therapy of severe seasonal and avian influenza
John Beigel and Mike Bray
Antiviral Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2009 April 1.
PMCID: PMC2346583
Published in final edited form as: Antiviral Res. 2008 April; 78(1): 91–102. Published online 2008 February 4. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2008.01.003.

Delaying the International Spread of Pandemic Influenza.
Cooper BS, Pitman RJ, Edmunds WJ, Gay NJ.
PLoS Med. 2006 Jun; 3(6): e212. published online before print May 2, 2006
Supplemental Data

Economical laboratory support system for influenza virus surveillance.
Reichelderfer PS, Kappus KD, Kendal AP.
J Clin Microbiol. 1987 May; 25(5): 947-948.

Evaluation of the Directigen FluA+B Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Type A and B Infections.
Chan KH, Maldeis N, Pope W, Yup A, Ozinskas A, Gill J, Seto WH, Shortridge KF, Peiris JS.
J Clin Microbiol. 2002 May; 40(5): 1675-1680.

The evolutionary emergence of pandemic influenza
Troy Day, Jean-Baptiste André, and Andrew Park
Proc Biol Sci. 2006 December 7; 273(1604): 2945–2953.
Supplementary materials:

Factors that make an infectious disease outbreak controllable.
Fraser C, Riley S, Anderson RM, Ferguson NM.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 20; 101(16): 6146-6151. published online before print April 7, 2004

Influenza: Emergence and Control
Aleksandr S. Lipatov, Elena A. Govorkova, Richard J. Webby, Hiroichi Ozaki, Malik Peiris, Yi Guan, Leo Poon, and Robert G. Webster
J Virol. 2004 September; 78(17): 8951–8959.

Influenza pandemic: perception of risk and individual precautions in a general population. Cross sectional study
Ivar S Kristiansen, Peder A Halvorsen, and Dorte Gyrd-Hansen
BMC Public Health. 2007; 7: 48

Influenza pandemic and professional duty: family or patients first? A survey of hospital employees
Boris P Ehrenstein, Frank Hanses, and Bernd Salzberger
BMC Public Health. 2006; 6: 311.

Influenza Seasonality: Underlying Causes and Modeling Theories
Eric Lofgren, N. H. Fefferman, Y. N. Naumov, J. Gorski, and E. N. Naumova
J Virol. 2007 June; 81(11): 5429–5436.

Modeling the effects of drug resistant influenza virus in a pandemic
Stefan O Brockmann, Markus Schwehm, Hans-Peter Duerr, Mark Witschi, Daniel Koch, Beatriz Vidondo, and Martin Eichner
Virol J. 2008; 5: 133. Published online 2008 October 30. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-5-133.
Supplementary material:

Monitoring the Impact of Influenza by Age: Emergency Department Fever and Respiratory Complaint Surveillance in New York City
Donald R Olson, Richard T Heffernan, Marc Paladini, Kevin Konty, Don Weiss, and Farzad Mostashari
PLoS Med. 2007 August; 4(8): e247.
Supplementary material:

Pandemic Influenza: The Inside Story.
Nicholls H.
PLoS Biol. 2006 Feb; 4(2): e50. published online before print February 14, 2006

Pandemic Influenza and Pregnant Women
Sonja A. Rasmussen, Denise J. Jamieson, and Joseph S. Bresee
Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 January; 14(1): 95–100.

Pandemic Influenza: Risk of Multiple Introductions and the Need to Prepare for Them.
Mills CE, Robins JM, Bergstrom CT, Lipsitch M, , , ,.
PLoS Med. 2006 Jun; 3(6): e135. published online before print February 21, 2006
Supplemental Data

The Pathology of Influenza Virus Infections
Jeffery K. Taubenberger and David M. Morens
Annu Rev Pathol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2008 August 11.

Personal Protective Equipment and Risk for Avian Influenza (H7N3)
Oliver Morgan, Mirjam Kuhne, Pat Nair, Neville Q. Verlander, Richard Preece, Marianne McDougal, Maria Zambon, and Mark Reacher
Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 January; 15(1): 59–62.
Supplementary materials:

The potential impact of the next influenza pandemic on a national primary care medical workforce.
Wilson N, Baker M, Crampton P, Mansoor O.
Hum Resour Health. 2005; 3: 7. published online before print August 11, 2005

Preliminary Findings of a Randomized Trial of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions to Prevent Influenza Transmission in Households
Benjamin J. Cowling, Rita O. P. Fung, Calvin K. Y. Cheng, Vicky J. Fang, Kwok Hung Chan, Wing Hong Seto, Raymond Yung, Billy Chiu, Paco Lee, Timothy M. Uyeki, Peter M. Houck, J. S. Malik Peiris, and Gabriel M. Leung
PLoS ONE. 2008; 3(5): e2101.
Supplementary materials:

Protecting residential care facilities from pandemic influenza
M. Nuño, T. A. Reichert, G. Chowell, and A. B. Gumel
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 July 29; 105(30): 10625–10630
Supplementary materials:

Reducing the Impact of the Next Influenza Pandemic Using Household-Based Public Health Interventions
Joseph T Wu, Steven Riley, Christophe Fraser, and Gabriel M Leung
PLoS Med. 2006 September; 3(9): e361.
Supplementary materials:

School Closure to Reduce Influenza Transmission
Lisa M. Koonin and Martin S. Cetron
Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 January; 15(1): 137–138.

Toward a broadly protective influenza vaccine
Peter C. Doherty and Anne Kelso
J Clin Invest. 2008 October 1; 118(10): 3273–3275. Published online 2008 September 18.

Zanamivir, influenza, and meningococcal disease : Zanamivir may help to fight potential flu epidemic.
Green ST.
BMJ. 2000 Feb 5; 320(7231): 378.


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Free Full Text

MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus)

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) detection: comparison of two molecular methods (IDI-MRSA PCR assay and GenoType MRSA Direct PCR assay) with three selective MRSA agars (MRSA ID, MRSASelect, and CHROMagar MRSA) for use with infection-control swabs.
van Hal SJ, Stark D, Lockwood B, Marriott D, Harkness J.
J Clin Microbiol. 2007 August; 45(8): 2486–2490. Published online 2007 May 30.

Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: prevalence and risk factors.
Beam JW,Buckley B.
J Athl Train. 2006; 41(3): 337–340.

Combined use of Pastorex Staph-Plus and either of two new chromogenic agars, MRSA ID and CHROMagar MRSA, for detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Compernolle V, Verschraegen G, Claeys G.
J Clin Microbiol. 2007 January; 45(1): 154–158. Published online 2006 November 8.

The Increasing problem of wound bacterial burden and infection in acute and chronic soft-tissue wounds caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Demling RH, Waterhouse B.
J Burns Wounds. 2007; 7: e8. Published online 2007 November 16.

Impact of rapid screening tests on acquisition of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: cluster randomised crossover trial.
Jeyaratnam D, Whitty CJM, Phillips K, Liu D, Orezzi C, Ajoku U, French GL.
BMJ. 2008 April 26; 336(7650): 927–930. Published online 2008 April 16.

Epidemiology of emerging Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Denmark: a nationwide study in a country with low prevalence of MRSA infection.
Faria NA, Oliveira DC, Westh H, Monnet DL, Larsen AR, Skov R, de Lencastre H.
J Clin Microbiol. 2005 April; 43(4): 1836–1842.

Comparisons of community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and hospital-associated MSRA infections in Sacramento, California.
Huang H, Flynn NM, King JH, Monchaud C, Morita M, Cohen SH.
J Clin Microbiol. 2006 July; 44(7): 2423–2427.

Mortality after infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) diagnosed in the community.
Delaney JA, Schneider-Lindner V, Brassard P, Suissa S.
BMC Med. 2008; 6: 2. Published online 2008 January 31.

Evaluation of rapid screening and pre-emptive contact isolation for detecting and controlling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in critical care: an interventional cohort study.
Harbarth S, Masuet-Aumatell C, Schrenzel J, Francois P, Akakpo C, Renzi G, Pugin J, Ricou B, Pittet D.
Crit Care. 2006; 10(1): R25. Published online 2006 February 6.

Risk factors and molecular analysis of community methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage.
Lu PL, Chin LC, Peng CF, Chiang YH, Chen TP, Ma L, Siu LK.
J Clin Microbiol. 2005 January; 43(1): 132–139.

A study of the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of MRSA screening and monitoring on surgical wards using a new, rapid molecular test (EMMS).
Hardy KJ, Szczepura A, Davies R, Bradbury A, Stallard N, Gossain S, Walley P, Hawkey PM.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2007; 7: 160. Published online 2007 October 3.

New real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus directly from specimens containing a mixture of staphylococci.
Huletsky A, Giroux R, Rossbach V, Gagnon M, Vaillancourt M, Bernier M, Gagnon F, Truchon K, Bastien M, Picard FJ, van Belkum A, Ouellette M, Roy PH, Bergeron mG.
J Clin Microbiol. 2004 May; 42(5): 1875–1884.

Evaluation of BacLite Rapid MRSA, a rapid culture based screening test for the detection of ciprofloxacin and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from screening swabs.
Johnson G, Millar MR, Matthews S, Skyrme M, Marsh P, Barringer E, O'Hara S, Wilks M.
BMC Microbiol. 2006; 6: 83. Published online 2006 September 29.

The evolutionary history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
Enright MC, D. Robinson A, Randle G, Feil EJ, Grundmann H, Spratt BG.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 May 28; 99(11): 7687–7692. Published online 2002 May 21.

Role of previous hospitalization in clinically-significant MRSA infection among HIV-infected inpatients: results of a case-control study.
Drapeau CMJ, Angeletti C, Festa A, Petrosillo N
BMC Infect Dis. 2007; 7: 36. Published online 2007 April 30.

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection or colonization present at hospital admission: multivariable risk factor screening to increase efficiency of surveillance culturing.
Haley CC, Mittal D, LaViolette A, Jannapureddy S, Parvez N, Haley RW.
J Clin Microbiol. 2007 September; 45(9): 3031–3038. Published online 2007 July 11.

Targeted intranasal Mupirocin to prevent colonization and infection by community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in soldiers: a cluster randomized controlled trial.
Ellis MW, Griffith ME, Dooley DP, McLean JC, Jorgensen JH, Patterson JE, Davis KA, Hawley JS, Regules JA, Rivard RG, Gray PJ, Ceremuga JM, DeJoseph MA, Hospenthal DR.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 October; 51(10): 3591–3598. Published online 2007 August 6.

Trends in prescribing β-Lactam antibiotics for treatment of community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.
Gupta K, MacIntyre A, Vanasse G, Dembry LM.
J Clin Microbiol. 2007 December; 45(12): 3930–3934. Published online 2007 October 17.

Treatment and outcomes of infections by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus at an ambulatory clinic.
Szumowski JD, Cohen DE, Kanaya F, Mayer KH.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 February; 51(2): 423–428. Published online 2006 November 20.

Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Sweden 2000–2003, increasing incidence and regional differences.
Stenhem M, Örtqvist A, Ringberg H, Larsson L, Olsson-Liljequist B, Hæggman S, Ekdahl K, and The Swedish Study Group on MRSA Epidemiology.
BMC Infect Dis. 2006; 6: 30. Published online 2006 February 21.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a general intensive care unit.
Thompson DS.
J R Soc Med. 2004 November; 97(11): 521–526.

Epidemiology and outcomes of community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.
Davis SL, Perri MB, Donabedian SM, Manierski C, Singh A, Vager D, Haque NZ, Speirs K, Muder RR, Robinson-Dunn B, Hayden MK, Zervos MJ.
J Clin Microbiol. 2007 June; 45(6): 1705–1711. Published online 2007 March 28.

The management of infection and colonization due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A CIDS/CAMM position paper.
Simor AE, Loeb M, and CIDS/CAMM Guidelines Committee.
Can J Infect Dis. 2004 Jan–Feb; 15(1): 39–48.

Emergence and spread of community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in rural Wisconsin, 1989 to 1999.
Stemper ME, Shukla SK, Reed KD.
J Clin Microbiol. 2004 December; 42(12): 5673–5680.


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Radiological Weapons/Warfare

Teratogenicity of depleted uranium aerosols: A review from an epidemiological perspective.
Hindin R, Brugge D, Panikkar B.
Environ Health. 2005; 4: 17. published online before print August 26, 2005;=pdf&artid;=1242351

Radiological weapons: what type of threat?
Mapstone J, Brett S.
Crit Care. 2005; 9(3): 223-225. published online before print February 17, 2005;=1175869

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Variola Major (Smallpox)

The smallpox story: life and death of an old disease.
Behbehani AM.
Microbiol Rev. 1983 Dec; 47(4): 455-509.;=pdf&artid;=281588

Bioterrorism Preparedness: The Smallpox Vaccine Debate.
Qutaishat SS, Olson JL.
Clin Med Res. 2003 Apr; 1(2): 85-86.;=pdf&artid;=1069028

Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination.
Riedel S.
Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2005 Jan; 18(1): 21-25.;=pdf&artid;=1200696

Large-Scale Screening of Nasal Swabs for Bacillus anthracis: Descriptive Summary and Discussion of the National Institutes of Health's Experience.
Kiratisin P, Fukuda CD, Wong A, Stock F, Preuss JC, Ediger L, Brahmbhatt TN, Fischer SH, Fedorko DP, Witebsky FG, Gill VJ.
J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Aug; 40(8): 3012-3016.;=pdf&artid;=120640

Smallpox and biological warfare: a disease revisited.
Riedel S.
Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2005 Jan; 18(1): 13-20.;=pdf&artid;=1200695
Smallpox Vaccine: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.
Belongia EA, Naleway AL.
Clin Med Res. 2003 Apr; 1(2): 87-92.;=pdf&artid;=1069029

Discovery of antivirals against smallpox.
Harrison SC, Alberts B, Ehrenfeld E, Enquist L, Fineberg H, McKnight SL, Moss B, O'Donnell M, Ploegh H, Schmid SL, Walter KP, Theriot J.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Aug 3; 101(31): 11178-11192. published online before print July 12, 2004;=pdf&artid;=509180

Bioterrorism Preparedness: The Smallpox Vaccine Debate.
Qutaishat SS, Olson JL.
Clin Med Res. 2003 Apr; 1(2): 85-86.;=pdf&artid;=1069028

Emergency response to a smallpox attack: The case for mass vaccination.
Kaplan EH, Craft DL, Wein LM.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Aug 6; 99(16): 10935-10940. published online before print July 12, 2002;=pdf&artid;=125076

The poxviruses.
Joklik WK.
Bacteriol Rev. 1966 Mar; 30(1): 33-66.;=pdf&artid;=378213

Murray R.
Bacteriol Rev. 1964 Dec; 28(4): 493-496.;=pdf&artid;=441250

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Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus

Emergence of a new epidemic/epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in South America.
Rico-Hesse R, Weaver SC, de Siger J, Medina G, Salas RA.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Jun 6; 92(12): 5278-5281.;=pdf&artid;=41677

Preparation and testing of vaccines prepared from the envelopes of Venezuelan, eastern, and western equine encephalomyelitis viruses.
Pedersen CE Jr.
J Clin Microbiol. 1976 Feb; 3(2): 113-118.;=pdf&artid;=274245

Effect of Relative Humidity and Temperature on Airborne Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus.
Ehrlich R, Miller S.
Appl Microbiol. 1971 Aug; 22(2): 194-199.;=pdf&artid;=377412

Estimating downwind concentrations of viable airborne microorganisms in dynamic atmospheric conditions.
Lighthart B, Mohr AJ.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 1987 Jul; 53(7): 1580-1583.;=pdf&artid;=203913

Virological and serological studies of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis in humans.
Bowen GS, Calisher CH.
J Clin Microbiol. 1976 Jul; 4(1): 22-27.;=pdf&artid;=274383

Stability of Live Attenuated Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Vaccine.
McManus AT, Robinson DM.
Appl Microbiol. 1972 Mar; 23(3): 654-655.;=pdf&artid;=380402

Biological Transmission of Arboviruses: Reexamination of and New Insights into Components, Mechanisms, and Unique Traits as Well as Their Evolutionary Trends.
Kuno G, Chang GJ.
Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005 Oct; 18(4): 608-637.;=1265912

The alphaviruses: gene expression, replication, and evolution.
Strauss JH, Strauss EG.
Microbiol Rev. 1994 Sep; 58(3): 491-562.;=pdf&artid;=372977

Epidemiological Aspects of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infections.
Sidwell RW, Gebhardt LP, Thorpe BD.
Bacteriol Rev. 1967 Mar; 31(1): 65-81.;=pdf&artid;=441023

Medically important arboviruses of the United States and Canada.
Calisher CH.
Clin Microbiol Rev. 1994 Jan; 7(1): 89-116.;=pdf&artid;=358307

Purification, Concentration, and Inactivation of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus.
Gruber J.
Appl Microbiol. 1970 Sep; 20(3): 427-432.;=pdf&artid;=376952

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Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers – Ebola Virus, Rift Valley Fever, Hantaavirus, Marburg Virus, Lassa Fever

Ebola Virus Can Be Effectively Neutralized by Antibody Produced in Natural Human Infection.
Maruyama T, Rodriguez LL, Jahrling PB, Sanchez A, Khan AS, Nichol ST, Peters CJ, Parren PW, Burton DR.
J Virol. 1999 Jul; 73(7): 6024-6030.;=pdf&artid;=11266

Replication of Marburg virus in human endothelial cells. A possible mechanism for the development of viral hemorrhagic disease.
Schnittler HJ, Mahner F, Drenckhahn D, Klenk HD, Feldmann H.
J Clin Invest. 1993 Apr; 91(4): 1301-1309.;=pdf&artid;=288099

Ebola virus-like particles protect from lethal Ebola virus infection.
Warfield KL, Bosio CM, Welcher BC, Deal EM, Mohamadzadeh M, Schmaljohn A, Aman MJ, Bavari S.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Dec 23; 100(26): 15889-15894. published online before print December 12, 2003;=pdf&artid;=307663

Persistent Infection with Ebola Virus under Conditions of Partial Immunity.
Gupta M, Mahanty S, Greer P, Towner JS, Shieh WJ, Zaki SR, Ahmed R, Rollin PE.
J Virol. 2004 Jan; 78(2): 958-967.;=pdf&artid;=368745

Effective Vaccine for Lassa Fever.
Fisher-Hoch SP, Hutwagner L, Brown B, McCormick JB.
J Virol. 2000 Aug; 74(15): 6777-6783.;=pdf&artid;=112194

Vertical transmission of viruses.
Mims CA.
Microbiol Rev. 1981 Jun; 45(2): 267-286.;=pdf&artid;=281509

Wave-Like Spread of Ebola Zaire.
Walsh PD, Biek R, Real LA.
PLoS Biol. 2005 Nov; 3(11): e371. published online before print October 25, 2005;=pdf&artid;=1262627;=1262627#supplementary-material-sec

Passive Immunity in Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases.
Keller MA, Stiehm ER.
Clin Microbiol Rev. 2000 Oct; 13(4): 602-614.;=pdf&artid;=88952

Development of a New Vaccine for the Prevention of Lassa Fever.
Geisbert TW, Jones S, Fritz EA, Shurtleff AC, Geisbert JB, Liebscher R, Grolla A, Ströher U, Fernando L, Daddario KM, Guttieri MC, Mothé BR, Larsen T, Hensley LE, Jahrling PB, Feldmann H.
PLoS Med. 2005 Jun; 2(6): e183. published online before print June 28, 2005;=pdf&artid;=1160587

Ebola Virus Pathogenesis: Implications for Vaccines and Therapies.
Sullivan N, Yang ZY, Nabel GJ.
J Virol. 2003 Sep; 77(18): 9733-9737.;=pdf&artid;=224575

Marburg and Ebola Virus Infections: A Guide for their Diagnosis, Management, and Control.
Grist NR.
J Clin Pathol. 1978 May; 31(5): 503.;=pdf&artid;=1145319

Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR.
Drosten C, Göttig S, Schilling S, Asper M, Panning M, Schmitz H, Günther S.
J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Jul; 40(7): 2323-2330.;=pdf&artid;=120575

Containing the Threat—Don't Forget Ebola.
Cohen J.
PLoS Med. 2004 Dec; 1(3): e59. published online before print December 28, 2004;=pdf&artid;=539049

Emerging infections--Ebola and other filoviruses.
Peters CJ.
West J Med. 1996 Jan; 164(1): 36-38.;=pdf&artid;=1303291

Emerging viral diseases.
Nichol ST, Arikawa J, Kawaoka Y.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Nov 7; 97(23): 12411-12412. published online before print October 17, 2000;=pdf&artid;=34064

Vaccine protects against Ebola virus.
Josefson D.
BMJ. 2000 Dec 9; 321(7274): 1433.;=pdf&artid;=1173511

Mims CA.
Bacteriol Rev. 1964 Mar; 28(1): 30-71.;=pdf&artid;=441209

Immunological Methods for Detection and Identification of Infectious Disease and Biological Warfare Agents.
Peruski AH, Peruski, Jr. LF.
Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003 Jul; 10(4): 506-513.;=pdf&artid;=164256

Nosocomial Spread of Viral Disease.
Aitken C, Jeffries DJ.
Clin Microbiol Rev. 2001 Jul; 14(3): 528-546.;=pdf&artid;=88988

Mechanisms of virus pathogenicity.
Smith H.
Bacteriol Rev. 1972 Sep; 36(3): 291-310.;=pdf&artid;=378451

Assessment of Aerosol Mixtures of Different Viruses.
Mayhew CJ, Hahon N.
Appl Microbiol. 1970 Sep; 20(3): 313-316.;=pdf&artid;=376931

Pathogenesis of rashes in virus diseases.
Mims CA.
Bacteriol Rev. 1966 Dec; 30(4): 739-760.;=pdf&artid;=441013

Monoclonal antibodies specific for Hantaan virus.
Franko MC, Gibbs CJ Jr, Lee PW, Gajdusek DC.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Jul; 80(13): 4149-4153.;=pdf&artid;=394218

A novel hantavirus associated with an outbreak of fatal respiratory disease in the southwestern United States: evolutionary relationships to known hantaviruses.
Hjelle B, Jenison S, Torrez-Martinez N, Yamada T, Nolte K, Zumwalt R, MacInnes K, Myers G.
J Virol. 1994 Feb; 68(2): 592-596.;=pdf&artid;=236491

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Yersinia Pestis/Pneumonic Plague

Microevolution and history of the plague bacillus, Yersinia pestis.
Achtman M, Morelli G, Zhu P, Wirth T, Diehl I, Kusecek B, Vogler AJ, Wagner DM, Allender CJ, Easterday WR, Chenal-Francisque V, Worsham P, Thomson NR, Parkhill J, Lindler LE, Carniel E, Keim P.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Dec 21; 101(51): 17837-17842. published online before print December 14, 2004;=pdf&artid;=535704

Identifying Sources of Human Exposure to Plague.
Lowell JL, Wagner DM, Atshabar B, Antolin MF, Vogler AJ, Keim P, Chu MC, Gage KL.
J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Feb; 43(2): 650-656.;=pdf&artid;=548095

Yersinia pestis--etiologic agent of plague.
Perry RD, Fetherston JD.
Clin Microbiol Rev. 1997 Jan; 10(1): 35-66.;=pdf&artid;=172914

Survival of Yersinia pestis on Environmental Surfaces.
Rose LJ, Donlan R, Banerjee SN, Arduino MJ.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003 Apr; 69(4): 2166-2171.;=pdf&artid;=154802

Detection of Yersinia pestis in Sputum by Real-Time PCR.
Loďez C, Herwegh S, Wallet F, Armand S, Guinet F, Courcol RJ.
J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Oct; 41(10): 4873-4875.;=pdf&artid;=254301

Molecular and cell biology aspects of plague.
Cornelis GR.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Aug 1; 97(16): 8778-8783.;=pdf&artid;=34011

Factors promoting acute and chronic diseases caused by yersiniae.
Brubaker RR.
Clin Microbiol Rev. 1991 Jul; 4(3): 309-324.;=pdf&artid;=358201

Plague: from natural disease to bioterrorism.
Riedel S.
Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2005 Apr; 18(2): 116-124.;=pdf&artid;=1200711

The Yersinia Deadly Kiss.
Cornelis GR.
J Bacteriol. 1998 Nov; 180(21): 5495-5504.;=pdf&artid;=107605

Plague The mysterious past and terrifying future of the world’s most deadly disease.
Wren B.
J Clin Invest. 2005 Jan 3; 115(1): 4.;=pdf&artid;=539310

Plague: a continuing threat.
Weir E.
CMAJ. 2005 Jun 7; 172(12): 1555.;=558167

The Plague Race: A Tale of Fear, Science and Heroism.
Murdoch DR.
BMJ. 2002 Oct 19; 325(7369): 909.;=pdf&artid;=1124411

Winter, plague and pestilence.
Petsko GA.
Genome Biol. 2001; 2(11): comment1013.1-comment1013.2. published online before print October 23, 2001;=pdf&artid;=138975

The great plague.
Martensen R.
Med Hist. 2001 Jul; 45(3): 431-433.;=pdf&artid;=1044411

The Black Death: a biological reappraisal.
Wilkinson L.
Med Hist. 1985 Jul; 29(3): 326-328.;=pdf&artid;=1139550

Plague: from natural disease to bioterrorism.
Riedel S.
Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2005 Apr; 18(2): 116-124.;=pdf&artid;=1200711

Meyer KF.
Bacteriol Rev. 1961 Sep; 25(3): 249-261.;=pdf&artid;=441101

Antiviral therapy: current concepts and practices.
Bean B.
Clin Microbiol Rev. 1992 Apr; 5(2): 146-182.;=pdf&artid;=358233 a

Plague The mysterious past and terrifying future of the world’s most deadly disease.
Wren B.
J Clin Invest. 2005 Jan 3; 115(1): 4.;=pdf&artid;=539310

Plague--perspectives on a rare disease.
Mann J.
West J Med. 1984 Apr; 140(4): 650-651.;=pdf&artid;=1021813

Control of plague.
Werner SB, Roberto RR, Nelson BC, Bissett M.
West J Med. 1979 Mar; 130(3): 271-273.;=pdf&artid;=1238603

Molecular and cell biology aspects of plague.
Cornelis GR.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Aug 1; 97(16): 8778-8783.;=pdf&artid;=34011

The Plague Race: A Tale of Fear, Science and Heroism.
Murdoch DR.
BMJ. 2002 Oct 19; 325(7369): 909.;=pdf&artid;=1124411

Mechanisms of virus pathogenicity.
Smith H.
Bacteriol Rev. 1972 Sep; 36(3): 291-310.;=pdf&artid;=378451

Classic Descriptions of Disease.
[No authors listed]
Can Med Assoc J. 1932 Oct; 27(4): 458.;=pdf&artid;=536441

Nungester WJ.
Bacteriol Rev. 1951 Sep; 15(3): 105-129.;=pdf&artid;=440981

Identifying Sources of Human Exposure to Plague.
Lowell JL, Wagner DM, Atshabar B, Antolin MF, Vogler AJ, Keim P, Chu MC, Gage KL.
J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Feb; 43(2): 650-656.;=pdf&artid;=548095

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