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Women and Gender in U.S. History II: 1830 to the Present: Title IX and Women's Athletics

This research guide points to select resources for the course Women and Gender in U.S. History II: 1830 to Present. Professor Jennifer Mittelstadt. Spring 2013.

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Sample Subjects Headings

College sports for women

Sex discrimination against women

Sex discrimination in sports

Women athletes

United States. Education Amendment of 1972. Title IX. 

Title IX

Title IX of the Educational Amendments Act of 1972:

"No person in the Unites States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance."

Renamed in 2002 as the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act in honor of the law's author. Patsy Mink was a democratic senator from Hawaii. 


Primary Sources

Douglass Women's File. Folder "Sports." Douglass Library, Mabel Smith Douglass Room. 

New Jersey Women's Equity Action League was inaugurated in 1971. Print finding aid available at SC/UA. 

Records of the Rutgers U. Director of Intercollegiate Athletics (Albert W. Twitchell), 1931-1977

Rita Kay Thomas Papers. Rita Kay Thomas was hired in 1972 to oversee women's athletics at Rutgers. Partial print finding aid available at SC/UA. 


History of Women's Sports Timeline

Rita Kay Thomas Obituary. Thomas was hired in 1972 to lead Rutgers women's athletics. She passed away in 2012. 

NCAA Gender Equity Report 

Rutgers Focus article celebrating the 25 years of women's athletics. 

Women in Intercollegiate Sports: a longituginal study thirty years later

Women's Sports Foundation

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