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The Newark Experience: Decline, Development and Renewal

New Development

Newark's Emerging Developments
From the 2011 State of the City address. Includes map.

The University and the City

University-Led Innovation in and for Peripheral Urban Areas: New Approaches in Naples, Italy and Newark, NJ, US
Jean-Paul D. Addie, Mariarosalba Angrisani, and Stefano De Falco. European Planning Studies 26(6), June 2018, pp. 1181–1201
"This paper focuses on the spatial development problem of university-led innovation in peripheral urban areas...A comparative investigation of Naples and Newark, NJ captures the functional operation of regional innovation and urban development as a contested product of discourses, technologies (material and governance), and territorial arrangements." [Due to publisher embargo, not available online until 18 months after publication.]

The James Street Commons

James Street Commons Historic District
2 photos. 46-58 James Street; 111-117 University Avenue. January 1979.
Press Release
Announcement of a plan to restore and revitalize the James Street Commons historic district.
James Street Commons Historic District
National Register of Historic Places nomination. History, significance, maps, etc. 1977.
Guidelines for the Development of the James Street Commons, Newark, New Jersey
Newark, N.J., Mayor's Policy and Development Office. Division of Review and Planning, 1977.
James Street Commons: The James Street Study Report: A Plan of Action for the Restoration of an Historic Neighborhood
Newark, N.J., Mayor's Policy and Development Office, 1976. Available?
Comprehensive Plan for the James Street Commons Area
1976. Available?
Bricks, Mortar, Memories, and Pride: The James Street Commons Reconsidered
Clement Alexander Price and Robin Foster. Exhibition at the Newark Public Library, June 12-Aug. 31, 2013. Available?

Decline, Development and Renewal

Post World War II
The Sixties, Seventies, and Eighties
The 1990s: Start with the Neighborhood
Into the 21st Century

Post World War II

Map of Existing & Proposed Urban Renewal Projects 1944
From the Newark Public Library Digital Collection
"Slum Clearance: The Newark Plan,"
Charles V. Craster. American Journal of Public Health and the Nation's Health 34, September 1944, 935-940.
A Newark ordinance passed on July 14, 1943 created an office of Supervisor of Rehabilitation of Dwellings to be held by the city Health Officer. "Under this ordianance, any slum building which could not be rehabilitated for a sum not exceeding 50 per cent of the assessed valuation was required to be demolished...the Supervisor could order the rehabilitation of any slum building should the owner refuse to do so." Available?
The Cost of Slums in Newark.
Newark, N.J., Housing Authority, 1946. Available?
The West Side Park Neighborhood: A Historical Perspective.
Dan McGuire. Report on behalf of the Corinthian Housing Development Corporation, New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. Center for Urban Policy Research Project Community, May 12, 1997.
Focuses on the "changing socioeconomic conditions in the West Side Park neighborhood between WWII and 1970, as well as on specific historic buildings and resources that exist today." Includes data from 1930 to 1989. Done in conjunction with the Strategic Revitalization Plan for the West Side Community of Newark, N.J.
The Politics of Slum Clearance: A Study of Urban Renewal in Newark, New Jersey Rutgers-restricted access
Harold Kaplan. Ph.D. Thesis, Columbia University, 1961. Available?
Urban Renewal Politics: Slum Clearance in Newark.
Harold Kaplan. New York, N.Y., Columbia University Press, 1963.
Focuses on the Newark Housing Authority and how they launched nine slum projects during the first 10 years of Title 1 of the 1949 Federal Housing Act. Looks at urban renewal as a political process. Available?
Newark: A City in Transition.
Market Planning Corporation. Newark, N.J., 1959. 3 volumes.
Prepared for the Mayor's Commission on Group Relations. Vol. 1: The Characteristics of the Population Vol. 2: Resident's Views on Inter-Group Relations and Statistical Tables Vol. 3: Summary and Recommendations Available?
Newark, Newark Commission for Neighborhood Conservation and Rehabilitation, [1958?].
Report of the Newark Commission for Neighborhood Conservation and Rehabilitation, whose "objective is Better Housing For All Of The People Of Newark through law enforcement, slum clearance, neighborhood conservation, additional housing, rehabilitation and education."
Newark Urban Renewal Plan: A Demonstration Grant Project: Conservation, Rehabilitation, Clearance.
Newark, N.J. Commission for Neighborhood Conservation and Rehabilitation, 1959. Available?
Newark Central Area Study 1959 Map
Property Map of Hill Street Urban Renewal Project 1959
Buildings between Broad Street to the east, West Kinney Street to the south, Washington Street to the west, and Hill Street to the north. Newark Public Library Digital Collection.
Economic Development of the Greater Newark Area: Recent Trends and Prospects.
Business Executives' Research Committee, Rutgers, the State University, 1959. Available?

The Sixties, Seventies, and Eighties

The City of Newark Archives and Records Management Center has the Newark Housing Authority Urban Renewal Project files for the 1960s and 1970s.

South Broad Urban Renewal Project 1960 Map
Area between Broad Street, High Street, Court and West Kenney. Newark Public Library Digital Collection.
Staging of Redevelopment Projects 1960 Map
Downtown Newark from Bloomfield Avenue to Lincoln Park.
Newark Central City Area Study 1968 Map
Relocation of Elderly People. Part 2, Newark, N.J.
United States. Congress. Senate. Special Committee on Aging. Subcommittee on Involuntary Relocation of the Elderly. Hearings. Oct. 26, 1962. Washington, D.C., 1963.
The elderly were among the populations most affected by urban renewal projects.
"Urban Renewal and Civil Rights,"
Stanley B. Winters. Studies on the Left 4(3), Summer 1964, pp. 16-31.
"The involuntary removal of large numbers of Negroes from their homes, businesses, churches and communities through the operations of a joint private and public program makes urban renewal a civil rights problem of enormous magnitude." Available?
The Law and Practice of Municipal Land Assembly: Fifty years of Urban Redevelopment and Community Opposition in Newark, New Jersey
Alan Drew Cander. Ph.D. Thesis, Rutgers University, 2011.
"Using a three-pronged qualitative methodology based on semi-structured interviews, archival analysis, and site visits, I conducted case studies of four urban redevelopment projects (two in one neighborhood) in Newark, New Jersey spanning a fifty-year period and revealing several overarching themes."
The Newark Frontier: Community Action in the Great Society Rutgers-restricted access
Mark Krasovic. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2016.
"The Newark Frontier shows how, during the Great Society, urban liberalism adapted and grew, defining itself less by centralized programs and ideals than by administrative innovation and the small-scale, personal interactions generated by community action programs, investigative commissions, and police-community relations projects." Available?
"State, Meet the Ghetto: Researching the Great Society in Newark."
Mark Krasovic. Three Historians: John Gutierrez, Mark Krasovic, and Julia Rabig. Newark History Society program, June 22, 2009.
The People Who Rebuilt Newark During Tumultuous Decades
WNYC interview with Julia Rabig, October 27, 2016.
The Fixers: Devolution, Development, and Civil Society in Newark, 1960-1990
Julia Rabig. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2016
"Understanding how some individuals and organizations in the complex and vibrant landscape of 1960s activism came to act as fixers illuminates two intertwined developments that shaped twentieth-century US history: the uneven political incorporation of black Americans and the evolution of the urban crisis...To understand why fixers emerged in the late 1960s and what distinguishes them, we must first understand the problems they promised to address, problems that Newark shared with many other cities around the country but that were also exacerbated by New Jersey’s particular history of localism and suburban expansion." Available?
Broken Deal: Devolution, Development and Civil Society in Newark, New Jersey, 1960-1990 Rutgers-restricted access
Julia Rabig. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 2007.
"This dissertation explores the enduring conflicts over race, federalism, and local self-determination in postwar U.S. cities through the experience of Newark, New Jersey... Newark's residents and their suburban neighbors mounted imaginative challenges to the city's decline, many of which resonated nationally among policymakers and residents of similarly distressed cities." Available?
"Who Speaks for the City?: Insiders and Outsiders in Newark's History."
Julia Rabig. Three Historians: John Gutierrez, Mark Krasovic, and Julia Rabig. Newark History Society program, June 22, 2009.
Re: New Newark: A Continuing Ten-Year Program. Final Report.
Newark, N.J. Central Planning Board. Prepared with the assistance of the Newark Commission for Neighborhood Conservation and Rehabilitation. 1961.
"[This report] is divided into three parts: principal elements of a continuing 10-year renewal program; community elements; and methods and techniques. This study embodies the experience and knowledge gained from an extensive analysis of Newark's renewal problems." Available?
Newark Urban Renewal Areas.
Newark, N.J. Division of City Planning, October, 1963.
Data and status of all urban renewal projects current in October 1963.
Capital Program...As Recommended by the Mayor.
Newark, N.J., Division of City Planning, 1964-
Annual capital improvement program report. Available?
"A Large City's Capital Improvement Program Newark's 1964-1969 Plan,"
New Jersey Municipalities 41, June 1964, 17-23.
Excerpts from Newark's 1964/69 Capital Program report. Available?
Marketability Material for Urban Land Institute Panel: Second Meeting, September 20, 21, 22, 1965.
Newark, The Housing Authority, Community Renewal Program, 1965. Available?
Application to the Department of Housing and Urban Development for a Grant to Plan a Comprehensive City Demonstration Program [Part IA]. April 1967.
Description of Newark submited as part of a Model Cities grant application.
An Economic Blueprint for Newark: The Overall Economic Development Program.
P. Bernard Nortman. Newark, N.J., Office of Economic Development, 1968. Available?
Newark Model Cities Program.
Newark, N.J. Community Development Administration, 1969. 3 vols.
Contents: Vol. 1: Problem Analysis. Goals and Program Approaches. Strategy. Vol. 2: Five Year Forecast. Vol. 3: First Year Action Program. Available?
A Blueprint for Solving New Jersey's Fiscal & Tax Problems: A Guideline for Action for the State, for Newark and all Other Municipalities in New Jersey.
P. Bernard Nortman. Newark, Office of Economic Development, 1970. Available?
Newark: Model Cities, Architectural & Environmental Design, Public Amenities Program & Specific Projects: Final Report.
Washington, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, 1971. Available?
Model Cities Program, Newark, N.J.
U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Banking and Currency. Subcommittee on Banking and Currency. Hearing. September 8, 1972.
"Hearing in Newark, N.J., before the Subcom on Housing on local operation of Federal housing and urban development programs, with emphasis on model cities and public housing programs and FHA operations in the center city." Rutgers-restricted Access
Economic Development Framework for the City of Newark, New Jersey.
Centaur Management Consultants. Prepared for the Overall Economic Development Program Committee, Inc., of Newark, New Jersey. Washington, D.C., 1973. Available?
"The Worst American City: A Scientific Study to Confirm or Deny Your Prejudices,"
Arthur M. Louis. Harper's Magazine 250(1496), January 1975, 67-71.
Considers the nation's fifty largest cities in 24 categories. Found that "[Newark] ranked among the worst five cities in no fewer than nineteen of the twenty-four categories, and it was dead last in nine of them. Rutgers-restricted Access
Urban Development Policy Newark.
Newark, N.J. Mayor's Policy and Development Office. Division of Review and Planning, 1975. Available?
South Orange Avenue Commercial Zone Improvement Study.
Abeles, Schwartz and Associates. Newark, Newark Economic Development Corporation, 1976. Available?
University City: New Town-In Town, Newark, New Jersey.
Grad Partnership. Newark, N.J., 1976. 2 vols.
Contents: Vol.1: Phase A. Analysis of Market Demands, Land Use and Activitiy Patterns. Vol.2: Phase B. Development of Concept Design for Nine Block Area. Available?
Renaissance Newark: Analysis of a New Strategy for Urban Redevelopment in Newark, New Jersey.
Debra Kim Flippen. Thesis (M.C.P.) Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1981.
"Renaissance Newark, Inc. represents a collaboraiton between private sector business leaders and government officials to plan and facilitate redevelopment in the downtown...The proposal, with its emphasis on the downtown exclusively, raises questions about its impact on the city as a whole.
Note: File format does not allow for copying or printing.
The Newark Experience, 1967-1977.
Newark, N.J., Greater Newark Chamber of Commerce, 1977.
"The "Newark Experience" is an 11-category, 10-year review of the city's progress in the areas of economic development, transportation, municipal finance, protective services, residential development, education, health care, hospital development, recreation and parks, preservation of our heritage, and cultural activities." Available?
N.J.R-6 through N.J.R-196
13 sheets of various Newark neighborhoods allocated for demolition, redevelopment, and urban renewal. 1982. NPL Digital Collection
"Employment Decentralization and Accessibility: A Strategy for Stimulating Regional Mobility,"
Mark Alan Hughes. Journal of the American Planning Association 57(3), Summer 1991, 288-298.
"During the 1980s, northern New Jersey underwent a development surge that extended the metropolitan periphery and dramatically shifted employment across a larger and more dispersed set of locations throughout the region. This article explores the implications of this emerging settlement structure for employment accessibility from the region's center, the city of Newark. Rutgers-restricted Access
A Force For Urban Progress: The University Heights Story.
Newark, N.J., Council for Higher Education in Newark, 1992. Available?
"Enterprise Renaissance Revitalizes Newark, N.J."
Rafael Zabala. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 10, Winter 1995, 112-115.
At the end of 1984, twenty percent of Newark was designated as the first enterprise zone in New Jersey. Results of the enterprise zone program. Available?

The 1990s: Start With the Neighborhood

"Newark, Decline and Avoidance, Renaissance and Desire: From Disinvestment to Reinvestment,"
Kathe Newman. Annals of the American Academy of Political & Social Science 594, July 2004, 34-48.
In the 1990s local governments came to recognize the importance of neighborhood revitalization for economic development. Looks at the dynamics of revitalization efforts in two of Newark's poorest neighborhoods, West Side Park and Brick Towers, and community efforts to save Brick Towers. Rutgers-restricted Access
"Neoliberal Urban Policy and New Paths of Neighborhood Change in the American Inner City," Rutgers-restricted access
Kathe Newman and Philip Ashton. Environment and Planning A 36(7), 2004, 1151-1172.
Focusing on the West Side Park neighborhood in Newark, explores the process of neighborhood change that emerged during the 1990s when a number of very-low income urban neighborhoods became sites for reinvestment. Available?
"Was 1992-2000 the Best of Times for American Urban Neighborhoods?"
Michael Greenberg. Geographical Review 93(1), January 2003, pp.81-96.
A survey of about 400 New Jersey residents was conducted in 2001 in order to determine whether people believed that their home neighborhood benefited during the unprecedented economic boom of the 1990s. Specific areas of the cities of New Brunswick, Camden, East Orange, Elizabeth, Newark, and Perth Amboy, were targeted for surveys. Rutgers-restricted Access
Strategic Revitalization Plan for the West Side Community of Newark, NJ.
Report on behalf of the Corinthian Housing Development Corporation, New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. Center for Urban Policy Research Project Community, May 12, 1997.
An Exploratory Study to Establish a Special Improvement District on Springfield and South Orange Avenues, Newark NJ.
Report to the Corinthian Housing Development Corporation and New Community Corporation. New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. Center for Urban Policy Research Project Community, May 11, 1998.
Roseville, Newark: Revitalizing a Community.
Report to the Hispanic Development Corporation. New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. Center for Urban Policy Research Project Community, May 29, 1996.
Joseph Della Fave. Powerpoint presentation for Abbott School Construction as a Catalyst for Community Development, a symposium sponsored by the Community Development Institute, New Brunswick, N.J., May 16, 2003.
Focus on the need for expanded recreation facilities for schools in the Ironbound section of Newark. Includes a map of the Ironbound Community Master Plan (2001). Della Fave is the Executive Director of the Ironbound Community Corporation.
"Assessment of a Newark Neighborhood: Process and Outcomes,"
Norbert L. Elliot, Frances W. Quinless and Elizabeth S. Parietti. Journal of Community Health Nursing 17(4), Winter 2000, 211-224.
"In 1996, the members of the St. Columba Collaboration conducted a grassroots neighborhood assessment of a Hispanic area in Newark Youth violence, domestic violence, crime, and lack of job skills surpassed poor housing and chronic health problems, including HIV/AIDS and drug and alcohol addiction, as the most noted neighborhood problems." As a result of the needs assessment, over the next three years the St. Columba Collaboration changed its strategic course and refocused its programs and services. Rutgers-restricted Access

Into the 21st Century

Creating New Image for Newark: A Visitor Center as Embodiment of Urban Change.
Dan Madryga. Competitions 20(2), Summer 2010, pp.26-33.
Final Report.
Newark in the 21st Century Task Force. Newark, N.J., 2000. Available?
Council for Higher Education in Newark: Economic Impact Report.
Submitted by the Roper Group in association with A.Ilan Consulting. July 2001.
The four members of the Council for Higher Education in Newark (CHEN), Rutgers University-Newark, the New Jersey Institute of Technology, the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, and Essex Community College, account for 9 percent of all employment in Newark. Examines the direct and indirect economic impact of higher education on Newark and New Jersey, as well as CHEN contributions to community development.
Destination: Newark, Year 2011.
Proceedings of the Mayor's Summit on the Development of University/Business Partnerships, December 12, 2001.
"The papers collected in this volume were originally prepared for a conference on Newark's economic development sponsored by the Council for Higher Education in Newark, a longstanding alliance of the four public higher education institutions of Newark's University Heights district. They illustrate the crucial role of higher education and research in Newark's continuing revitalization."
Destination: Newark, Year 2013.
Proceedings of the 2nd CHEN Summit on the Development of University/Business Partnerships, March 20, 2003.
"Revitalization: Newark's Tale of Two Cities,"
Navdeep Mathur. New Jersey Reporter April 2002. Available?
Urban Revitalization and Participatory Governance: A Discursive Analysis of Policy Deliberation in Newark Rutgers-restricted access
Navdeep Mathur. Ph.D. Thesis, Rutgers University, Newark, 2005.
"This study situates the Newark experience within a competing set of policy discourses i.e. policy institutions, developmental processes and political practices to analyze how powerful public and private actors play a dominant role in this 'Revitalization', while effectively excluding the voices and involvement of communities of residents impacted by it." Available?
The Road Home: A Ten Year Plan to End Homelessness in Newark and Essex County (2010 – 2020)
Design to Connect: Complete Connectivity in the Ironbound
Mark D. Hoopes. (M.L.A. Thesis)Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 2018.
"Communities that connect with one another and their landscape become functional and strong, enabling them to act together to achieve common goals. This paper explores how landscape design can reinforce this type of connectivity in the Ironbound neighborhood of Newark, NJ."

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