A selection of resources about the history, issues, characteristics, and policies relating to specific groups.
Thomas Paine. Agrarian Justice. 1797.
Paine advocated the creation of a national fund, financed by a tax on inherited property, that would pay every person 10 Pounds annually once they reached the age of 50.
Williamson, John B. " Old Age Relief Policy Prior to 1900," American Journal of Economics and Sociology 43(3), July 1984, 369-384.
"Between the 17th and the 19th centuries old age relief policy in America became increasingly restrictive." Rutgers-restricted Access
Gratton, Brian. " The Poverty of Impoverishment Theory: The Economic Well-Being of the Elderly, 1890-1950," Journal of Economic History 56(1), 1996, 39-61. Rutgers-restricted Access
Innovation in the Aging Network: The Future of Social Services for Older Americans. Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 2006.
Hearing before the Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate, 109th Congress, 2d session, Washington, D.C., May 3, 2006.
Issues in Focus: Social Security Reform
Findings and links from the Urban Institute.
" Bush's House of Cards: The Privatization Fraud [Special section]," American Prospect 16(2), February 2005, p. A1-A23 Rutgers-restricted Access
Hudson, Robert B. " The New Political Environment in Aging: Challenges to Policy and Practice," Families in Society 86(3). July/September 2005, 321-7. Rutgers-restricted Access
Women and Children
Women and Children in the Labor Force
Orphans, Adoption and Foster Care
Olasky, Marvin. The Rise and Fall of American Orphanages
Chapter 5 of Rethinking Orphanages for the 21st Century. Richard B. McKenzie, editor. Thousand Oaks, Calif., Sage, 1999.
Brace, Charles Loring. "The Life of the Street Rats," Excerpt from The Dangerous Classes of New York and Twenty Years Work Among Them. New York, Wynkoop & Hallenbeck, 1872.
Founder of New York City's Children's Aid Society, Brace began the "orphan trains" program that sent thousands of New York area "orphans" to families in the Mid-West.
Cook, Jeanne F. "A History of Placing-Out: The Orphan Trains," Child Welfare 74(1), January/February 1995, 181-197.
"Between 1854 and 1930, the placing-out or orphan train strategy, considered to be the forerunner of modern family foster care, relocated approximately 150,000 children and youths from the city of New York to families in the Midwest." Rutgers-restricted Access
Adoption History Project
Rich collection of primary and secondary sources relating to the history of adoption in the United States. Includes a timeline, a section on important individuals and organizations, and essays, documents, and suggestions for further reading organized by Topics in Adoption History. Site maintained by Ellen Herman in the Department of History at the University of Oregon.
Adoption and Foster Care Statistics
From the Children's Bureau (CB), one of the bureaus within the Administration for Children and Families, of the Department of Health and Human Services.
Federal Foster Care Financing: How and Why the Current Funding Structure Fails to Meet the Needs of the Child Welfare Field. ASPE Issue Brief. Updated August 2005.
Frame, Laura. "Suitable Homes Revisited: An Historical Look at Child Protection and Welfare Reform," Children and Youth Services Review 21(9/10), 1999, 719-754.
"A review of selected events highlights the problems encountered when welfare-based social services attempt to perform a child protection function, problems that are particularly relevant given current concerns that welfare reform will intensify the poverty experienced by already precarious families."Rutgers-restricted Access
The State of America's Children 2017
"A comprehensive look at the status of America’s children in 11 areas: child population, child poverty, income and wealth inequality, housing and homelessness, child hunger and nutrition, child health, early childhood, education, child welfare, juvenile justice and gun violence. " From the Children's Defense Fun
State of America's Children in New Jersey 2017
Data from the Children's Defense Fund.
America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being. Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office.
Annual reports from the Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics.
Kids Count Data Book
Project of the Annie E. Casey Foundation, annually tracks the status of children in the U.S., nationally and state-by-state.
National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) 1997-2014 and 2015-2022.
Survey mandated by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. Looks at the characterisitcs of the children and families that come into contact with the child welfare system; the pathways and services they experience while in the system; and the short and longer-term effects of the experience for these children and families.
Scarcella, Cynthia Andrews et. al. The Cost of Protecting Vulnerable Children IV: How Child Welfare Funding Fared During the Recession. Washington, D.C., The Urban Institute, 2004.
Examines "the amount states spent on child welfare activities in state fiscal year (SFY) 2002, the funding sources they used, how funds were used, and how funding has shifted since federal welfare reform and ASFA."
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