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Citation Helper: An APA and MLA Citation Guide

Library research guide highlighting APA and MLA citation formation using sample citations for a wide range of sources.

MLA Works Cited List


Archival Materials


Basic format for archival documents

Last name, First name Middle name. Title or description. Day Month Year of creation. Name of the collection, location, location details. URL if available.

 

Auden, W. H., and Klaus Mann. Prospectus. Decision Magazine Papers, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale U Library, MS 176, box 1, folder 20.

Notes:

  1. Name the author in a “last name, first name middle name” format.
  2. Provide titles in quotation and italics. If untitled, provide a description of the item without quotations or italics.
  3. Provide the date the document is created in a “Day month year” format. Add a question mark if the date is uncertain. Use “Date unknown” if the date is not known.
  4. Use the title of the archival collection as the Title of container.
  5. Use the Collection’s call number or reference number, Box number, Folder number, etc. of the document in the collection. Add the name of the repository (i.e. library or archive) and its location.
  6. Add DOI or URL if the document is available online.

Audiovisual Media


Basic format for online videos

Refer to the tabs for examples of citations for different types of audiovisual content.

Last Name, First Name of video creator or Username of Creator.  “Title of Video.” Title of the Hosting Website, uploaded by Username, Day Month Year of Publication, URL of video. Accessed Day Month Year video was viewed.

 

YouTube videos

McGonigal, Jane. “Gaming and Productivity.” YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012, www.youtube.com/watch?v=mkdzy9bWW3E.

Note:

  1. If the author’s name is the same as the uploader, only cite the author once. If the author is different from the uploader, cite the author’s name before the title.


Title of Movie. Contributor(s).  Publisher/Production Company, Year of Release.

 

The Usual Suspects. Directed by Bryan Singer, performances by Kevin Spacey, Gabriel Byrne, Chazz Palminteri, Stephen Baldwin, and Benicio Del Toro.  Polygram, 1995.

Notes:

  1. Typically films, television episodes, and other performances have many contributors. After the title, list the contributors most relevant to your project. Most common contributors listed include directors, creators, and performers.


Films and television series are generally produced by many different contributors performing different roles. If you are focusing on a particular contribution of an individual, begin the entry with that person's name:

Larson, Glan A. and Ronald D. Moore, creators. Battlestar Galactica, David Eick Productions, 2004-2009

Olmos, Edward James, performer. Battlestar Galactica. David Eick Productions, 2004-2009

If you are writing about a film or television series without focusing on the particular contributions of individuals, start with the title. You can include information about key participants in the position of other contributors:

Battlestar Galactica. Created by Glen A. Larson and Ronald D. Moore, performance by Edward James Olmos. David Eick Productions, 2004-2009



 

Album without Medium

Selena. Amor Prohibido.  EMA Latin, 1994.

 

Album with Medium

Davis, Miles. Birth of the Cool.  Capitol Records, 1957. Vinyl LP.

 

Song without Mode of Listening

BTS. “Dynamite.” Be, Big Hit, 2020.

 

Song Listened Through an App

Drake. “Wants and Needs (feat. Lil Baby).” Scary Hours 2, OVO Sound, 2021. Spotify app.

 



Original Work of Art

Artist's Last Name, First Name. Title of Work. Year, Medium, Name of Institution/Private Collection housing artwork, City where Institution/Private Collection is located.

 

Calder, Alexander. Untitled. 1976, Aluminum and steel. 910.3 x 2315.5 cm (358 3/8 x 911 5/8 in.). National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.

 

Artwork from a Book

Artist's Last Name, First Name. Title of Work. Year, Location of Work, Book Title, by Author's Last Name, First Name, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication, p. number

Note:

  1. When you refer to a photographic reproduction of an artwork, the citation is made up of two parts. Part a: Lists the original artist's name, the name of the work, and the date the work was created. Part b: Cites where you found the reproduction of the work such as a book.

Da Vinci, Leonardo. Last Supper. 1498, Santa Maria della Grazie, Milan. Great Paintings of the Western World, by Gallup, Alison, et al., Barnes & Noble, 1998, p. 223.

 

Artwork from an Online Source

Da Vinci, Leonardo. Last Supper. 1498, Santa Maria della Grazie, Milan. "The Last Supper," by Beth Harris and Steven Zucker, Khan Academy, 2015, www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-art-history/early-europe-and-colonial-americas/renaissance-art-europe-ap/a/leonardo-last-supper. Accessed 14 July 2018.

 


Books


Basic format for books


Refer to the tabs for examples of citations for different types of book content.

 

Last Name, First name. Title of Work, City of publication, Publisher, Publication Date.

Notes:

  1. Name the author in a "Last name, First name" format.
  2. Italicize titles if the source is self-contained and independent.
  3. The City of Publication should only be used if the book was published before 1900, if the publisher has offices in more than one country, or if the publisher is unknown in North America.
  4. If there are three or more authors, list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. (Latin for "and others") in place of the subsequent authors' names.


Books by one author

Flatley, Jonathan. Affective Mapping: Melancholia and the Politics of Modernism. Harvard UP, 2008.

 

Books by two authors

Wheatley, Margaret and Deborah Frieze. Walk Out Walk On: a Learning Journey into Communities Daring to Live the Future Now. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc, 2011.

 

Books by three or more authors

Dean, Amber, et al. Feminist Praxis Revisited: Critical Reflections on University-Community Engagement. 1st ed., Wilfred Laurier UP, 2019.



Dancyger, Ken. Storytelling for Film and Television: From First Word to Last Frame. Routledge, 2019. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351245982.

 

Bell, Nancy. We Are Not Amused: Failed Humor in Interaction, De Gruyter, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:3447/lib/wsu/detail.action?docID=2035730.

Note:

For e-books, include a persistent link to the work. DOIs are preferred over URLs when available. 



An edited book is made up of chapters written by different authors. If you are citing only a single chapter from an edited work, follow the citation format for a book chapter.

 

Kepner, Susan Fulop, editor and translator. The Lioness in Bloom: Modern Thai Fiction about Women. U of California P, 1996..

 

Edited book with a DOI

Thompson, Kate. "Journal Writing as a Therapeutic Tool." Writing Cures: An Introductory Handbook of Writing in Counselling and Psychotherapy, edited by Gillie Bolton,Routledge, 2004, pp. 72-84. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=116959&site=eds-live&scope=site&profile=edsebook.


 


 

Last name, First name. “Title of Essay.” Title of Collection, edited by Editor’s Name(s), Publisher, Year, Page range of entry.

 

O’Brien, Tim. “The Things They Carried.” Literature: Reading Fiction, Poetry, and Drama, edited by Robert DiYanni, 6th ed., McGraw Hill, 2007, pp.684-97.

Notes:

  1. When citing a particular work that forms part of a collection of distinct essays, stories, poems, chapters, etc., the book is treated as the container for the work.
  2. Include the inclusive page numbers for the work within the book.


 

To emphasize the original author

Dostoevsky, Feodor. The Brothers Karamazov: A Novel in Four parts with Epilogue. Translated by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002

 

To emphasize the translator(s)

Pevear, Richard and Larissa Volokhonsky, translators.The Brothers Karamazov: A Novel in Four parts with Epilogue. by Feodor Dostoevsky, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002.
 
Notes:
  1. Consider whose work - the author's or the translator's - you are primarily referring to.
  2. If your citations are mostly to the work itself, state the author's name first, then give the translator's name after the title.
  3. If you are primarily referring to the translator's comments or choice of wording, start your citation with the translator's name, and then give the author's name after the title.

Dissertations


Published Dissertation or Thesis

Njus, Jesse. Performing the Passion: A Study on the Nature of Medieval Acting. 2010. Northwestern U, PhD dissertation. ProQuest, search.proquest.com/docview/305212264?accountid=13965.

 

Remedios, Richard E. Defining My Process: My Journey Through the MFA Acting Program at the University of South Carolina. 2007. U of South Carolina, Master's thesis.


Journals


Basic format for periodical articles

Refer to the tabs for examples of citations for different types of periodical content.

Author's Last Name, First Name. “Title of article.” Title of Journal, Volume, number, issue, Year, Page numbers.

 

Journal Article with a DOI

Rahavi, M. Marit, and Sonja B. Starr. “Racial Disparity in Federal Criminal Sentences.” Journal of Political Economy, vol. 122, no. 6, Dec. 2014, pp. 1320-1354. https://doi.org/10.1086/677189.

 

Journal Article without a DOI (use URL)

Fetters, Cassandra. “The Continual Search for Sisterhood: Narcissim, Projection, and Intersubjective Disruptions in Toni Morrison's Sula and Feminist Communities.” Meridians: Feminisim, Race, Transnationalism, vol. 13, no. 2, 2015, pp. 28-55, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=keh&AN=114940601&site=ehost-live.



Author's Last Name, First Name. “Title of article.” Name of Magazine, Volume, number, issue, Year, Page numbers.


 

Rowell, Melody. “What’s it Like to live in the World’s Most Polluted City.” National Geographic, 26 Apr. 2016, pp. 25-30.

 


 

 


Newspaper articles will follow the basic form for periodicals, but the date will include the month and day (the date of publication), and the page number may include the section letter


Author's Last Name, First Name. “Title of article.” Title of Website, Date of Publication, URL. Accessed Day Month Year site was visited.


 

Newspaper article from an online newspaper

Bologna, Caroline. “Why some people with anxiety love watching horror movies.” HuffPost, 31 Oct. 2019, https://www.huffpost.com/entry/anxiety-love-watching-horror-movies_l_5d277587e4b02a5a5d57b59e. Accessed 12 Feb. 2022.

 

Newspaper article from a print version

Smith, Bill. “Talks on Bosnia Bog Down Over Borders.” Toronto Star, 18 Aug. 2012, p. B6.

 

Newspaper article from an academic research database

Barker, Jeff. “Faster-track marijuana legalization bill backed Measure would approve recreational usage by July 1.” The Baltimore Sun (Baltimore, MD), 4 Mar. 2022, NewsBank: Access World News, nfoweb.newsbank.com/apps/news/document-view?p=AWNB&docref=news/1888833157BCD3F8. Accessed 8 Mar. 2022.

 


Websites


Basic format for websites

Author Last Name, First Name. “Title of work.” Sponsor or Publisher [include  only if different from website title or author], Date of Publication or Update Date, URL. Accessed Date [only if no date of publication or update date].



Webpage on a News Website

Refer to above "newspaper" section, or click HERE.

Pulcinella, Maria. “N.J. property tax relief program could expand to nearly 2 million residents — including renters.” WHYY, 4 Mar. 2022, whyy.org/articles/nj-anchor-program-property-tax-rebate/. Accessed 4 Mar. 2022.

 

AP News. “Sorting fact, disinformation amid Russian war on Ukraine.” 4 Mar. 2022, https://apnews.com/article/russia-ukraine-kyiv-business-europe-media-c35dd0f30eb55d831e81cd222cc34c07. Accessed 5 Mar. 2022.



Webpage on a Government Agency Website

Name of National Government, Agency, Subdivision. Title of Document: Subtitle if Given. Name of Government Department, Agency or Committee,  Publication Date, URL. Accessed Date.

 

United States, Congress, House, Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Cyber Intelligence Sharing and Protection Act. Government Publishing Office,  17 Apr. 2012, www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-111hhrg50208/html/CHRG-111hhrg50208.htm. 112th Congress, 2nd Session, House Report 112-445. Accessed 22 Oct. 2019.

Notes:

  1. Cite the author of the publication if the author is identified. Otherwise, start with the name of the national government, followed by the agency (including any subdivisions or agencies) that serves as the organizational author.
  2. For congressional documents, be sure to include the number of the Congress and the session when the hearing was held or resolution passed as well as the report number.
  3. US government documents are typically published by the Government Printing Office.
  4. If a personal author or a corporate author (e.g. government agency or organization) cannot be identified, start the citation with the title of the document


Webpage on an Organization's Website

“Title of Section.” Title of Website, Publisher or Sponsoring Organization, Date of publication or last modified date, URL. Accessed 8 Mar. 2022.

 

“The top 10 causes of Death.” World Health Organization, 9 Dec 2020, https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death. Accessed 8 Mar. 2022.

Notes:

  1. The publisher or sponsoring organization can often be found in a copyright notice at the bottom of the home page or on a page that gives information about the site.
  2. If the website publisher is the same as the author and title of the web site, then include only the title of the web site.


Webpage with an Individual Author

Author's Last Name, First Name. “Title of Page or Document.” Title of Website, Publisher or Sponsoring Organization, Date of copyright or date last modified/updated, URL. Accessed Date Month (abbreviated) Year.

 

Schaeffer, Katherine. “What we know about online learning and the homework gap amid the pandemic.” Pew Research Center, 1 Oct. 2021, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2021/10/01/what-we-know-about-online-learning-and-the-homework-gap-amid-the-pandemic/. Accessed 15 Jan. 2022.


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