APA Reference List
Film or Movie
Provide the director in the author element of the reference, followed by the notation “(Director).” Provide the production company or companies in the source element of the reference. Separate multiple production companies with a semicolon.
Film or Movie in Another Language
If the original title of the work is a language different from that of the paper you are writing, provide a translation of the title in square brackets after the title and before the bracketed description and period.
Episode of a TV show
Song with an associated album, with multiple music labels
Song without an associated album
Song or track recorded by an artist other than the original artist
Classical song or track
Artwork in a museum or on a museum website
Informational museum plaque
Books by one author
Books by two authors
Books by three or more authors
An edited book is made up of chapters written by different authors. If you are citing only a single chapter from an edited work, follow the citation format for a book chapter.
Edited book with a DOI
The examples below show how to format a citation for a chapter in an edited book, compilation, or anthology (i.e. a book with chapters written by different authors).
For a chapter in an authored book, create a reference for the entire book and provide the chapter number with the in-text citation only.
Chapter in an edited book
Published Dissertation or Thesis
Journal Article with a DOI
Journal Article without a DOI (use URL)
Magazines will follow the basic form for periodicals, but the date may include the month and day (the date of publication)
Newspaper articles will follow the basic form for periodicals, but the date will include the month and day (the date of publication), and the page number may include the section letter
Newspaper article from an online newspaper
If the newspaper article is from an online newspaper that has a URL that will resolve for readers, include the URL of the article at the end of the reference. If volume, issue, and/or page numbers for the article are missing, omit these elements from the reference.
Newspaper article from a print version
If you used a print version of the newspaper article, provide the page or pages of the article after the newspaper title. Do not include the abbreviations “p.” or “pp.” before the page(s).
Newspaper article from an academic research database
If the newspaper article is from an academic research database, provide the title of the newspaper and any volume, issue, and/or page numbers that are available for the article. Do not include database information in the reference. If the article does not have volume, issue, or page numbers available, the reference in this case ends with the title of the newspaper.
Article from a news website
Use this format for articles from news websites. Common examples are BBC News, BET News, Bloomberg, CNN, HuffPost, MSNBC, Reuters, Salon, and Vox. These sites do not have associated daily or weekly newspapers.
Webpage on a News Website
Refer to above "newspaper" section, or click HERE.
Webpage on a Government Agency Website
Webpage on an Organization's Website
Webpage with an Individual Author
Webpage with a Retrieval Date
When contents of a page are designed to change over time but are not archived, include a retrieval date in the reference.
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