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The Newark Experience: Crime in Newark

Safer Newark Council Report

Report of the Safer Newark Council, 2016: A Call to Action. Executive Summary. June 2016.
Study analyzing 8 years of Newark crime data and recommending strategies for the reduction of violent crimes.

Crime Statistics

Current Crime Statistics
The most current Newark crime statistics--city-wide and by precinct.

Crime Trends From the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports
Bureau of Justice Statistics database allows you to generate crime trends by municipality since 1985.

Newark Crime Map
Reported crimes, by crime and location, for the last two months. From www.spotcrime.com Other time periods available with (free) registration.

Newark Neighborhood Crime Maps, Statistics, Local Reports and Alerts
Reported crimes, by crime and location, for 20 Newark neighborhoods.

Organized Crime

Crime Bosses of Newark: "Richie the Boot" Boiardo and Longie Zwillman
Michael Immerso and Warren Grover; moderated by Angelo Baglivo. Panel discussion sponsored by the Newark History Society and the New Jersey Historical Society. September 15, 2008.

In the Godfather's Garden: The Long Life and Times of Richie "the Boot" Boiardo
Richard Linnett. New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers University Press, 2013. Available?

Gangster #2: Longy Zwillman, the Man Who Invented Organized Crime
Mark A. Stuart. Secaucus, NJ, Lyle Stuart, 1985. Available?

FBI Records: Abner Zwillman
7 volumes of digitized documents (newspaper articles, reports, memoranda) spanning the 1930s to the 1950s.

Nazis in Newark.
Warren Grover. New Brunswick, N.J. Transaction Publishers, c2003. The Minutemen, a group of boxers and bodyguards from Zwillman's Third Ward Gang, and the Non-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League, led by physician S. William Kalb, led the opposition to Nazi activities and recruitment efforts in Newark between 1933 and 1941. Available?

Abner 'Longy' Zwillman-Kefauver Hearings. Short video clip of Zwillman during the Kefauver Crime Committee hearing.

Investigation of Organized Crime in Interstate Commerce. Hearings before a Special Committee to Investigate Organized Crime in Interstate Commerce, United States Senate, Eighty-first Congress, 2nd Session. 1950. Zwillman testimony before the Kefauver Committee, pp. 588-628.

Investigation of Organized Crime in Interstate Commerce: Part 18: New York and New Jersey
Hearings Before the Special Committee to Investigate Organized Crime in Interstate Commerce. United States Senate. Eighty-Second Congress. First Session. July 6, 7, 11, 17, 19, 20; August 15, 16, 17. 1951. Includes extended testimony from Meyer Ellenstein, the former mayor of Newark, mobster Joseph "Doc" Stacher, and others.

Crime in Newark

Associations Among Criminal Gang Members as a Defining Factor of Organization and as a Predictor of Criminal Behavior: The Gang Landscape of Newark, New Jersey Rutgers-restricted Access
Jean Marie McGloin. Thesis (Ph.D.), Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 2004.
"Findings show that street gangs in Newark are collectively rather disorganized and that, while gang members have varying positions within the respective networks, no clear taxonomy emerges. In addition, social position within a gang has a positive relationship with frequency of offending and violent offending." Available?
"Policy and Intervention Considerations of a Network Analysis of Street Gangs"
Jean Marie McGloin. Criminology & Public Policy 4(3), August 2005, pp.607-635.
"This study details a network analysis of the street gang landscape in Newark, New Jersey. Using individual gang members as the unit of analysis and multiple layers of associations as the linkages within the networks, the results suggest that the gangs in Newark are loosely organized with pockets of cohesion." Rutgers-restricted Access
Bus Stops and Crime: Do Bus Stops Increase Crime Opportunities in Local Neighborhoods?
Sung-suk Violet Yu. Thesis (Ph.D.), Rutgers University, 2009.
Using frameworks of routine activity, crime pattern, and rational choice theories, the present study set out to investigate the relationships between bus stops and crime using Newark, New Jersey as the study area. Available?
Exploring Fear of Crime Among Elderly Urban Females: An Application of Focus and Intensive Interview Techniques
Kathleen J. Hanrahan. Thesis (Ph.D.), Rutgers University, 1990.
"This study is an exploration of the experience of fear of crime among a group of elderly, urban, women. Respondents are elderly female residents of Newark, New Jersey who participate in city operated senior citizen centers." Available?
"The Effects of Building Size on Personal Crime and Fear of Crime"
Oscar Newman and Karen A. Franck. Population and Environment 5(4), Winter 1982, pp. 203-220.
The relationship between architectural design, crime, & fear of crime was tested in a study of moderate-income housing developments in Newark, NJ, San Francisco, Calif, & St. Louis, Mo, & in low-income public housing projects in San Francisco. Rutgers-restricted Access
"Violent Crime and Alcohol Availability: Relationships in an Urban Community"
Paul W. Speer et al. Journal of Public Health Policy 19(3), 1998, pp.303-318.
Examines the relationship between violent crime, neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics, & alcohol outlet densities in Newark. Rutgers-restricted Access
Examining Spatiotemporal Patterns of Disorder at Bars in Newark, NJ
Rosalyn Bocker Parks. Thesis (Ph.D.), Rutgers University Newark, 2015
" While the interaction of time and place plays an important role in bar and disorder research, a systematic examination of these temporal and spatial patterns of disorder concentrations at bar locations has not been undertaken. The goal of this research was to examine spatial and temporal concentrations of disorder at bars."
"Impact of Newark's Operation Ceasefire on Trauma Center Gunshot Wound Admissions"
Douglas J. Boyle et.al. Justice Research and Policy 12(2), 2010, pp. 105-123
"We examined the impact of Newark’s Operation Ceasefire on gunshot wound admissions (GSW) to the Level 1 Trauma Center at University Hospital for a three-year period. "
"Police-monitored CCTV cameras in Newark, NJ: A quasi-experimental test of crime deterrence"
Joel Caplan, Leslie Kennedy, and Gohar Petrossian. Journal of Experimental Criminology 7(3), September 2011, pp.255-274.
"A quasi-experimental research design, using camera installation sites and randomly selected control sites, assessed the impact of CCTV on the crimes of shootings, auto thefts, and thefts from autos in Newark, NJ, for 13 months before and after camera installation dates." Rutgers-restricted Access
"Analyzing the Influence of Micro-Level Factors on CCTV Camera Effect"
Eric L. Piza, Joel M. Caplan, and Leslie W. Kennedy. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 30(2), June 2014, pp.237-264.
"The current study contributes to the literature by testing the influence of several micro-level factors on changes in crime levels within CCTV areas of Newark, NJ." Rutgers-restricted Access

Assault

"Individual-Level and Socio-Structural Characteristics of Violence: An Emergency Department Study"
Douglas J. Boyle and Constance Hassett-Walker. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 23(8), August 2008, pp. 1011-1026.
"In this article, the authors present a data collection system to provide information about assault-related injuries within Newark, New Jersey." Rutgers-restricted Access
Armed Aggravated Assaults on Police Officers in Newark, New Jersey : An Exploratory Analysis
Jennifer L. Lanterman. Thesis (Ph.D.). Rutgers University, 2007.
The purpose of the current exploratory case study is to determine whether patterns or common factors exist in the armed aggravated assaults on police officers in Newark, New Jersey. Available?

Auto Theft

"A Spatial Analysis of Criminal Effort: Auto Theft in Newark, New Jersey"
Marissa C. Potchak, Jean M. McGloin, and Kristen M. Zgoba. Criminal Justice Policy Review 13(3), September 2002, pp. 257-285.
"This article draws on insights from rational choice theory to examine the effect of criminal effort—operationalized as distance traveled to a criminal opportunity—on auto theft incidents in Newark, New Jersey, during the year 2000." Rutgers-restricted Access

Drugs

How Are Street Drug Dealing Locations Selected?
Ko-Hsin Hsu. Thesis (Ph.D). Rutgers University Newark, 2014.
"In Newark, NJ, drug dealing is common, but it is not evenly distributed in every part of the city. Between 2007 and 2009, most drug arrests were made on less than 20% of the streets. The dissertation seeks to explain how the locations for drug dealing are related to their surrounding situational features."

Homicide

Murder Did Pay: 19th Century New Jersey Murders
John T. Cunningham (Introduction). With a bibliography by Donald A. Sinclair. Newark, New Jersey Historical Society, 1981.
Reprinting of four nineteenth century pamphlets documenting four notorious New Jersey murder cases, including Life, Trial, Execution and Dying Confession of John Erpenstein. Convicted of Poisoning His Wife, and Executed in Newark, N.J., March 30, 1852. Sinclair's bibliography, "Murders in Print," is primarily a bibliography of separate publications (1692-1901) relating to murders in or associated with New Jersey. Available?
The Influence of Planned Aggression on the Journey to Homicide: An Examination Across Typology Classifications
Nicholas Corsaro, Jesenia M. Pizarro, & Jillian Shafer. Homicide Studies, 21(3), August 2017, pp. 179-198.
"We assessed the impact of planned aggression across homicide mobility types in Newark, New Jersey, from 1997 through 2007."
Peaceable Kingdoms and War Zones: Pre-emption, Ballistics and Murder in Newark
Brendan Andrew O'Flaherty and Rajiv Sethi. Columbia University. Department of Economics Discussion Papers. 2007.
"Between 2000 and 2006 the murder rate in Newark doubled while the national rate remained essentially constant... In Newark, the changes in fundamentals that set off the spiral were a collapsing arrest rate (and probably a falling conviction rate), a reduction in prisoners, and a shrinking police force."
"Comment on "Peaceable Kingdoms and War Zones: Preemption, Ballistics and Murder in Newark''
Guillermo Cruces. IN The Economics of Crime: Lessons for and from Latin America. Edited by Rafael Di Tella, Sebastian Edwards, and Ernesto Schargrodsky. University of Chicago Press, 2010.
"Explaining Gang Homicides in Newark, New Jersey. Collective Behavior or Social Disorganization?"
Jesenia M. Pizarro and Jean Marie McGloin.. Journal of Criminal Justice 34(2), March-April 2006, pp. 195-207.
"The findings of this study suggested that there were significant differences between gang and non-gang homicides at the incident level. At the multivariate level, the authors found that homicides precipitated by the operationalization of Decker's (1996) escalation hypothesis were more likely to be gang-related. Conversely, the social disorganization measure did not predict gang homicide, while poverty was a significant predictor."Rutgers-restricted Access
"Race, Gender, and the Newsworthiness of Homicide Incidents"
Jeff Gruenewald, Jesenia Pizarro, and Steven M. Chermak. Journal of Criminal Justice 37(3), May-June 2009, pp. 262-272.
Examines how cultural typification of victims and offenders affected news media coverage of homicides in Newark, New Jersey, between 1997 and 2005. Rutgers-restricted Access
"An Examination of the Covariates of Female Homicide Victimization and Offending"
Jesenia M. Pizarro, Christina DeJong, and Edmund F. McGarrell. Feminist Criminology 5(1), January 2010, pp.51-72.
"This study examines and compares the covariates of female homicide offending and victimization in Indianapolis, Indiana, and Newark, New Jersey." Rutgers-restricted Access
"Can Situational and Structural Factors Differentiate Between Intimate Partner and 'Other' Homicide?"
Christina DeJong, Jesenia M. Pizarro, and Edmunc F. McGarrell. Journal of Family Violence 26(5), July 2011, pp. 365-376.
" This study examines data collected from 739 homicides in two distinct metropolitan cities [Newark and Indianapolis] to determine which factors differentiate intimate and non-intimate homicide. Rutgers-restricted Access
"Reassessing the Situational Covariates of Homicides: Is There a Need to Disaggregate?"
Jesenia M. Pizarro. Homicide Studies 12(4), November 2008, pp. 323-349.
Examines the situational covariates of four distinct homicide types (i.e., domestic, drug, robbery, and interpersonal dispute) that occurred in the city of Newark, New Jersey, from 1997 through 2005. Rutgers-restricted Access
"Assessing the Interaction Between Offender and Victim Criminal LIfestyles & Homicide Type"
Jesenia M. Pizarro, Kristen M. Zgoba, and Wesley G. Jennings. Journal of Criminal Justice 39(5), September-October 2011, pp. 367-377.
"This study examined the interaction between homicide victim and offender criminal lifestyles and the situational characteristics of homicides that occurred in the city of Newark, New Jersey from 1997 through 2007." Rutgers-restricted Access
"Cool Pose: Black Male Homicide and the Social Implications of Manhood"
Ronald E. Hall and Jesenia M. Pizarro. Journal of Social Service Research 37(1), 2010, pp.86-98.
"Cool Pose is a tradition of manhood originating in Africa. The relationship of Cool Pose and homicide was examined by analyzing with multivariate statistical techniques 721 homicide incidents that occurred in the city of Newark, New Jersey. Rutgers-restricted Access
"An Assessment of the Quality of Homicide Data in the Supplementary Homicide Reports: A Research Note"
Jesenia M. Pizarro and April M. Zeoli. Justice Quarterly 30(4), 2013, pp.711-731.
"This research note examines the accuracy of the information in the [FBI's Supplementary Homicide Reports] by comparing homicide cases in Newark, New Jersey with their respective data to determine the level of disagreement between the data sources, which variables exhibit the greatest disagreement, and the case-related variables related to the disagreement." Rutgers-restricted Access
"Homicide as Infectious Disease: Using Public Health Methods to Investigate the Diffusion of Homicide"
April M. Zeoli, Jesenia M. Pizarro, Sue C. Grady, and Christopher Melde. Justice Quarterly 31(3), 2014, pp. 609-632.
"This study examined the spatial and temporal movement of homicide in Newark, New Jersey from January 1982 through September 2008...The results revealed spatio-temporal patterns of expansion diffusion: overall, firearm and gang homicide clusters in Newark evolved from a common area in the center of the city and spread southward and westward over the course of two decades." Rutgers-restricted Access
Examining the Relationship Between Weather and Homicide
Chae M. Mamayek. Thesis (M.A.). Michigan State University, 2013.
" The present study draws from existing literature and examines the relationship between weather and homicide. A unique and rich data set of homicides known to the police in Newark, New Jersey is employed in answering the following research questions: (1) Is weather an important situational covariate in the occurrence of homicide, (2) given that a homicide occurs, is weather an important situational covariate of homicide once it is disaggregated by location (i.e. outdoor and indoor), and (3) is there a relationship between the number of homicide incidents and temperature?" Available?
Do Dead People Speak Different Languages?: A Comparative Approach to the Social Construction of Violent Death in France and in the United States
Melanie-Angela Neuilly. Thesis (Ph.D.), Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 2007.
"The research analyzed the different types of violent deaths according to a comparative social constructionist perspective to identify the processes and factors at play in their classification as homicide, suicide, or accident...The author conducted a comparative case study of practices at the Regional Medical Examiner's Office in Newark, New Jersey and at the Institut Médico-Légal in Rennes, France."
Available?