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The Newark Experience: Epidemics & Diseases

Epidemics

Cholera

"Cholera in Newark, New Jersey,"
Stuart Galishoff. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 25(4), October 1970, 438-448. Reprinted in Newark: The Nation's Unhealthiest City, 1832-1895. New Brunswick, N.J., 1988, pp.49-62. Medical and social responses to the cholera outbreaks in Newark in 1832, 1849, and 1854. Available?

"Notices of the Cholera at Newark in 1832,"
J.S.Darcy. Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of New York 1850, 181-184. Available?

"History of the 'Cholera' Epidemic as it Appeared in the City of Newark, N.J., From June to Oct., 1849,"
J. Henry Clark. New York Journal of Medicine 4, 1850, 211-223

Polio Epidemic of 1916

Poliomyelitis: Newark 1916: The Grip of Terror. Sandra W. Moss. [n.p.] Xlibris, 2016. Available?

Screen the Baby, Swat the Fly : Polio in the Northeastern United States, 1916.
Naomi Rogers. Thesis (Ph. D.). University of Pennsylvania, 1986. Case study of the 1916 polio epidemic in New York, Philadelphia and Newark. Focus on social issues. Available?

"Newark and the Great Polio Epidemic of 1916,"
Stuart Galishoff. New Jersey History 94(2-3), Summer/Autumn 1976, 101-111. While New York and New Jersey were the hardest hit by the 1916 polio epidemic, the incidence rate in Newark was nearly twice that for New York City with 1422 cases and 376 deaths reported. Newark was also the first city to adopt a comprehensive plan to aid paralyzed polio victims. Available?

"Poliomyelitis, Some Features in City Prevalence,"
Charles V. Craster. Journal of the American Medical Association 68(21), May 26, 1917, 1537-1539. Craster was the Newark health officer who declared on July 14, 1916 that Newark had a polio epidemic. Available?

"Poliomyelitis (Infantile Paralysis); The Recent Epidemic in Newark, N.J.,"
C.H. Lavinder Public Health Reports December 8, 1916, 3351-3355. Primarily tables and graphs, including reported cases and deaths by ward.

I Am the Baby Killer!
Illustration from the Newark Evening News.

Influenza

"Newark and the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918,"
Stuart Galishoff. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 43, 1969, 246-58. Between September and November 1918, Newark recorded 29,320 cases of influenza and pneumonia with a resulting 2183 deaths. The city's response to the crisis. Rutgers-restricted Access

Playing Politics with Disease: Newark's Imperious Mayor During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic
Jennifer E. Harmsen. Thesis (M.A.), Rutgers University Newark/New Jersey Institute of Technology, 2015. " While the Department of Health of the State of New Jersey acted swiftly to the pandemic by issuing mandatory closings of all public gathering places, the municipality of Newark, under the leadership of Mayor Charles P. Gillen, chose not to adhere entirely to the quarantines. Of the 29,000 Newarkers who were stricken with the flu, 2,800 people died within three months...Over ten percent of the deaths from influenza in the state of New Jersey occurred in Newark. While no one could have predicted where the greatest numbers of deaths would take place, Gillen’s political handling of the influenza crisis in Newark is reminiscent of how much one person could impact the health care of a city and calls into question whether some of the causalities from influenza in Newark could have been prevented."

"Newark and Influenza, 1918"
Health Bulletin. February 1919.

"Care of Influenza Patients Cost the City About $30,000,"
Newark Evening News December 20, 1918, p.6

Diseases

AIDS
Cancer
Tuberculosis
Typhoid

AIDS

New Jersey AIDS Collection, 1986-
Finding aid. "The New Jersey AIDS Collection was developed in 1986 by the UMDNJ University Libraries Special Collections staff to document the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the state of New Jersey. The collection is purposely gathered through the collection of newsletters, pamphlets, brochures, articles, statistics, memorabilia, and other ephemeral materials produced by New Jersey organizations and UMDNJ units." This collection is located in Special Collections, George F. Smith Library of the Health Sciences, Rutgers Health Sciences Newark Campus.
Comprehensive Health Plan: 2012-2014
Newark Eligible Metropolitan Area Health Services Planning Council.
The Newark EMA includes Essex, Union, Morris, Sussex, and Warren counties. The Newark EMA provides direct care and services for about 9000 persons living with HIV or AIDS.
The AIDS Epidemic in Newark and Detroit.
Hearings Before the Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives. Ond Hundred and First Congress, First Session. March 27 and April 24, 1989. Washington, DC, Government Printing Office, 1990.
"Geographical AIDS Rates and Socio-Demographic Variable in the Newark, New Jersey Metropolitan Area,"
Dale J. Hu et.al. AIDS & Public Policy Journal 9(1), Spring 1994, 20-24.
Study examining the relationship between socioeconomic factors and the incidence of HIV/AIDS in Newark. Based on December 1991 zip code data, median household income was the variable most strongly associated with higher cumulative AIDS incidence. Available?
A Tangled Pathology: How AIDS Became a "Family Disease" in Newark, New Jersey, 1970-1997
Jason M. Chernesky. Thesis (M.A.) Rutgers University, 2013.
"In reframing a problem that was predominately cast as a "gay disease" in North America, AIDS activists in Newark sought to highlight the growing prevalence of HIV and AIDS among urban communities of color. These efforts sought to direct national attention and resources towards affected "at risk" Newarkers by self-consciously portraying HIV and AIDS as a disease of the family."
New Hope: African-American Women and HIV/AIDS
Angela Thomas. Thesis (M.A.), Rutgers University, 2006. Available?
AIDS is Just a Four Letter Word : An Ethnographic Study of Theodicy and the Social Construction of HIV/AIDS in Newark, New Jersey.
E. Lee (Eugenia Lee) Hancock. Thesis (Ph. D.)--Drew University, 2002.
In Newark HIV/AIDS is a disease of poverty. Uses oral histories to investigate the social processes that shape the lives of the Newark HIV/AIDS community. Available?
Surviving HIV/AIDS in the Inner City: How Resourceful Latinas Beat the Odds.
Sabrina Marie Chase. New Brunswick, N.J., Rutgers University Press, 2011. Available?
Mujeres Ingeniosas (Resourceful Women): HIV and Puerto Rican Women and the Urban Health Care System.
Sabrina Marie Chase . Ph.D. Thesis, Rutgers University, 2005.
"This ethnographic study explores the help-seeking strategies of poor HIV+ Puerto Rican woemn living in the greater Newark area."
Off-Campus Access Rutgers-restricted access
Educating Students about AIDS Through Art: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation in Newark Public High Schools
Ashley Grosso. Ph.D. Thesis. Rutgers-Newark, 2011.
"This dissertation evaluates the effects and implementation of an education program aimed at increasing knowledge and changing attitudes about HIV and AIDS among high school students."
Off-Campus AccessRutgers-restricted Access
"Modeling the Impact of Interventions Along the HIV Continuum of Care in Newark, New Jersey"
Ruthie B. Birger et al. Clinical Infectious Diseases 58(2), 2014, pp. 274-284.
"The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Newark, New Jersey, is among the most severe in the United States. Prevalence ranges up to 3.3% in some groups. The aim of this study is to use a mathematical model of the epidemic in Newark to assess the impact of interventions along the continuum of care, leading to virologic suppression. " Rutgers-restricted Access
"Immune Deficiency Syndrome in Children,"
James Oleske et.al. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 249(17), May 6, 1983, 2345-2349.
The first study of AIDS in children looked at eight children from the Newark metropolitan area born into families with recognized risks for AIDS. Available?

Cancer

"Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Newark, N.J. 1970-1974: A National Comparison,"
I.S.Thind et al. Cancer 47(5), March 1, 1981, 1047-1053.
"Cancer Among Blacks in Newark, New Jersey, 1970-1976: A National and International Comparison,"
I.S.Thind et al. Cancer 50(1), July 1, 1982, 180-186.
"Cervical Cancer and Health Care Resources in Newark, New Jersey, 1970 to 1988,"
Bart K. Holland, James D. Foster, and Donald B. Louria. American Journal of Public Health 83(1), January 1993, 45-48.
Examined cervical carcinoma patterns in Newark over a 19-year period, found that "the ratio of in situ to invasive cervical cancer increased and decreased in a striking parallel with the provision and subsequent cessation of funding."
Off-Campus Access Rutgers-restricted access

Tuberculosis

"Changes in Tuberculosis Incidence in Newark, New Jersey,"
G.R. Najem et al. Journal of the Medical Society of New Jersey 75(7), July 1978, 543-547.
In 1969 Newark had the highest incidence of active tubercolosis among major U.S. cities. Between 1970 and 1974, the rate of active tuberculosis decreased 29 percent. Available?
Tuberculosis, A Resurgence in Newark.
Hearing Before the Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations Subcommittee of the Committee on Goverment Operations, Housing of Representatives. One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session. October 20, 1992.

Typhoid

Report on Typhoid Fever--Newark, N.J.--1898-99
H.C.H. Herold. Public Health Papers Report 25, 1899, pp. 172-176.1
Relationship between the consumption of Passaic River water and typhoid fever.